Biology GK Questions Quiz-12

Biology GK Questions Quiz-12

Biology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Biology for competitive examinations.

    221. Which part of human body is first highly affected by nuclear radiation ?

    (1) Eyes
    (2) Lungs
    (3) Skin
    (4) Bone Marrow
    Answer:
    221. (3) When molten nuclear fuel melts through a nuclear power plant’s barriers, it causes a serious radiation leak. The radioactive materials will seep out to the surrounding environment, and into the air. Once in the upper atmosphere, high winds and jet streams could carry the dust to all places, and dropping radiation on everything, causing radiation poisoning. Radiation can penetrate deep inside the human body, and into the cells. Certain body parts are more specifically affected by exposure to different types of radiation sources. The areas of skin exposed to radiation will appear like severe sunburn, then sores may form, and skin infection may develop.

    222. Olive Ridley is a famous

    (1) cricketer
    (2) turtle species
    (3) grass type vegetation
    (4) Another name for olive tree
    Answer:
    222. (2) The Olive Ridley is considered the most abundant sea turtle in the world, with an estimated 800,000 nesting females annually. The Olive Ridley gets its name from the olive coloration of its heart-shaped top shell (carapace). The Olive Ridley has one of the most extraordinary nesting habits in the natural world. Large groups of turtles gather off shore of nesting beaches. Then, all at once, vast numbers of turtles come ashore and nest in what is known as an “arribada”. During these arribadas, hundreds to thousands of females come ashore to lay their eggs. The Olive Ridley turtles are the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world, inhabiting warm waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans.

    223. The standard audible capacity of a healthy human being as per World Health Organi-sation is in the range of

    (1) 45-50 decibels
    (2) 200-250 decibels
    (3) 5-10 decibels
    (4) 2000-2500 decibels
    Answer:
    223. (3) Hearing range usually describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by an animal or human, though it can also refer to the range of levels. In humans the audible range of frequencies is usually said to be 20 Hz (cycles per second) to 20 kHz (20,000 Hz), although there is considerable variation between individuals, especially at the high frequency end, where a gradual decline with age is considered normal. Specifically, humans have a maximum aural range that begins as low as 12 Hz under ideal laboratory conditions, to 20 kHz in most children and some adults, but the range shrinks during life, usually beginning at around the age of 8 with the higher frequencies fading. Inaudible sound waves can be detected (felt) by humans through physical body vibration in the range of 4 to 16 Hz.

    224. Jonas Salk invented the vaccine for

    (1) Polio 
    (2) Hepatitis
    (3) Typhoid 
    (4) Cholera
    Answer:
    224. (1) Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his
    discovery and development of the first polio vaccine. The field trial set up to test the vaccine developed by Salk and his research team was the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000
    physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers,” with over
    1,800,000 school children participating in the trial. On April 12, 1955, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., of the
    University of Michigan, the monitor of the test results, “declared the vaccine to be safe and effective.”

    225. Cancer is a disease where we find uncontrolled

    (1) cell division
    (2) cell swelling
    (3) cell inflammation
    (4) cell deformity
    Answer:
    225. (1) Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called
    malignant cells. Symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the cancer. Cancer grows out of normal cells in the body. Normal cells multiply when the body needs them, and die when the body doesn’t need them. Cancer appears to occur when the growth of cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly. It can also occur when cells forget how to die. The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer.

    226. Lac, which is used as sealing wax is produced by

    (1) stem 
    (2) root
    (3) insect 
    (4) bird
    Answer:
    226. (3) Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects. There are several lac insects, some of which secrete highly pigmented wax. The Indian lac insect Laccifer lacca is important
    commercially.

    227. Triple vaccine is administered to a new born child to immunize it against

    (1) whooping cough, tetanus and measles
    (2) whooping cough, tetanus and diphtheria
    (3) tetanus, diphtheria, measles and rubella
    (4) tetanus, diphtheria, small pox and rubella
    Answer:
    227. (2) Triple Antigen vaccine is a combination of Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (whooping cough). The vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies to immunize the body against the causative agents of the three viruses listed above. It is recommended to children older than 2 months of age.

    228. An antibiotic is

    (1) a chemical synthesized by a human cell against a microorganism
    (2) a chemical synthesised by a micro-organism against another micro-organisms
    (3) a substance produced by blood cells against bacteria
    (4) a substance produced by blood cells against infection.
    Answer:
    228. (2) An antibacterial is an agent that inhibits bacterial growth or kills bacteria. The term is often used synonymously with the term antibiotic(s); today. The term antibiotic was first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman and his collaborators in journal articles to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution. This definition excluded substances that kill bacteria, but are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juices and hydrogen peroxide). It also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides. Many antibacterial compounds are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight of less than 2000 atomic mass units.

    229. Which one of the following can be synthesized by Liver ?

    (1) Vitamin – A
    (2) Vitamin – E
    (3) Vitamin – D
    (4) Vitamin – K
    Answer:
    229. (4) Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that are needed for the post translational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation and in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. This group of vitamins includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Populations with an increased prevalence of vitamin K deficiency include those who suffer from liver damage or disease (e.g. alcoholics), cystic fibrosis, or inflammatory bowel diseases, or have recently had abdominal surgeries. The vitamin K - dependent coagulation proteins are synthesised in the liver and comprise factors II, VII, IX, and X, which have a haemostatic role.

    230. Fluid part of blood devoid of corpuscles is called

    (1) Tissue fluid
    (2) Plasma
    (3) Serum 
    (4) Lymph
    Answer:
    230. (3) In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma with the fibrinogens removed. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones, and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs and microorganisms). Serum is an essential factor for the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells in combination with the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor.

    231. Heart murmur indicates a

    (1) defective valve
    (2) poor oxygenation
    (3) dislocation of the heart
    (4) improper development of muscles
    Answer:
    231. (1) Murmurs are pathologic heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow that is sufficient to produce audible noise. A functional murmur or “physiologic murmur” is a heart murmur
    that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the
    heart itself. Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. Such murmurs are known as pathologic murmurs.

    232. The language used in writing the scientific name of animals is

    (1) French 
    (2) Latin
    (3) German 
    (4) Dutch
    Answer:
    232. (2) Throughout most of the history of Western science, all scientific literature was written in Latin. Only recently has it been written in spoken languages like English. The use of Latin names has remained so that scientists that speak different languages can understand what they are talking about. Another reason is that many plants and animals have common names that differ by region. Having a Latin name avoids confusion among scientists.

    233. Ripe grapes contain

    (1) Fructose 
    (2) Sucrose
    (3) Galactose 
    (4) Glucose
    Answer:
    233. (1) Fully mature or ripe grapes contain about an equal concentration of glucose and fructose, which are the simple sugars yeast ferment to form alcohol and carbon dioxide. Ripe grapes contain ~ 20% of glucose. During ripening the sucrose molecules are hydrolyzed (inverted) by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose. By the time of harvest, between 15-25% of the grape will be composed of simple sugars. Both glucose and fructose are six-carbon sugars but three, four, five and seven-carbon sugars are also present in the grape. At time of harvest, there is usually an equal amount of glucose and fructose molecules in the grape; however, as the grape over ripens the level of fructose will become higher.

    234. M.R.I. stands for

    (1) Metered Resonance Imaging
    (2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    (3) Magnetic Reaction Imaging
    (4) Metered Reaction Imaging
    Answer:
    234. (2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body. An MRI scanner is a device in which the patient lies within a large, powerful magnet where the magnetic field is used to align the magnetization of some atomic nuclei in the body, and radio frequency fields to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization. This causes the nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner— and this information is recorded to construct an image of the scanned area of the body.

    235. Raja Rao the famous Indian Novelist who died on 8th July 2006. The title of his first novel was

    (1) Kanthapura
    (2) The Serpent and The Rope
    (3) The Chess Master and His Moves
    (4) The Cat and Shakespeare
    Answer:
    235. (1) Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura (1938) is the first major Indian novel in English. It is a fictional but realistic account of how the great majority of people in India lived their lives under British rule and how they responded to the ideas and ideals of Indian nationalism. The book has been considered by many to be the first classic modern Indian writing in English and is thought of as one of the best, if not the best, Gandhian novels in English.

    236. The science dealing with the study of teeth is

    (1) Odontology 
    (2) Ornithology
    (3) Phenology 
    (4) Cosmology
    Answer:
    236. (1) Odontology is the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth. Forensic
    dentistry or forensic odontology is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. The evidence that may be derived from teeth, is the age (in children) and identification of the person to whom the teeth belong. This is done using dental records including radiographs, ante-mortem (prior to death) and post-mortem photographs and DNA.

    237. The enzyme in whose presence glucose and fructose are converted into alcohol is

    (1) Diastase 
    (2) Maltase
    (3) Invertase 
    (4) Zymase
    Answer:
    237. (4) The slow decomposition of organic matter into simpler substances in presence of enzymes is known as fermentation. Fermentation is used for the preparation of alcoholic beverages from grape juice and other fruit juices in presence of yeast, which contains proper enzymes. In the first process, sugar from molasses or sugarcane, fruits or starch is first converted to glucose and fructose (isonomers) in presence of an enzyme called invertase.
    C12H22O11+ H2O ® C6H12O6 + C6H12O6. Glucose and fructose are both converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide in presence of another enzyme, zymase. Both the enzymes, invertase and zymase, are present in yeast. C6H12O6 ® 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

    238. The study of visceral organs is

    (1) Angiology
    (2) Arthrology
    (3) Anthrology
    (4) Splanchnology
    Answer:
    238. (4) Splanchology is the scientific study of the viscera and its organs. It studies the characteristics and structure of the visceral system of an animal. It is the study of viscera, which are the organs situated
    in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities of the body, and are associated with pleura and peritoneum. There are four major systems identified in the viscera according to their functions, and they are the digestive system, the respiratory system, the urinary system, and the reproductive system. These four major systems are to process bodily intakes for metabolism such as nutrients and oxygen from surrounding and to remove the wastes from the body. One last function of the viscera is to ensure the survival of the species as a whole by conducting the process of reproduction.

    239. The branch of biology dealing with the study of cells is known as

    (1) Cytology 
    (2) Histology
    (3) Psychology 
    (4) Physiology
    Answer:
    239. (1) Cytology means “the study of cells”. Cytology is that branch of life science, which deals with the study of cells in terms of structure, function and chemistry. Based on usage it can refer to: Cytopathology: the study of cellular disease and the use of cellular changes for the diagnosis of disease; and Cell biology: the study of (normal) cellular anatomy, function and chemistry.

    240. The study of extinct animals is called

    (1) Herpetology
    (2) Ornithology
    (3) Geology
    (4) Palaeontology
    Answer:
    240. (4) Paleontology is the study of fossils to determine the structure and evolution of extinct animals and plants and the age and conditions of deposition of the rock strata in which they are found. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). As a “historical science” it attempts to explain causes rather than conduct experiments to observe effects. Palaeontological observations have been documented
    as far back as the 5th century B.C.E.

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