Biology GK Questions Quiz-19

Biology GK Questions Quiz-19

Biology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Biology for competitive examinations.

    361. Which of the following statements is true ?

    (1) Dehusked cereals and pulses are more nutritious
    (2) Whole grain cereals and pulses are more nutritious
    (3) Processed cereal products are nutrient dense
    (4) Breakfast cereals are nutrient dense
    361. (2) Cereal and pulse crops are staple foods that provide essential nutrients to many populations of the world. Traditionally, whole grains were consumed but most current foods are derived from refined fractions of cereal and pulse crops. Consumption of processed or refined products may reduce the health benefits of food. In wheat-based processed foods, for example, the removed 40% of the grain (mainly the bran and the germ of the wheat grain) contains the majority of the health beneficial components. These components, particularly non-essential phytoche-micals such as carotenoids, polyphenols, phytosterols/ stanols, and dietary fibers, have been shown to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases of humans, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and Parkinson’s disease. Such bioactives are therefore good candidates for ingredients of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

    362. The vitamin most readily destroyed by heat is

    (1) Riboflavin
    (2) Ascorbic acid
    (3) Tocopherol
    (4) Thiamine
    362. (2) Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is the most easily destroyed vitamin. It is destroyed by oxygen, heat
    (above 70 degrees) and it leaks out into the cooking water because it is a water soluble vitamin. To
    preserve vitamin C in food, citrus fruits, tomatoes, juices, broccoli, green peppers, cantaloupe and
    strawberries should be stored in the refrigerator uncut until we need them. Steaming and stir-frying
    are two methods that help conserve vitamin C content.

    363. Which one of the following is not a vaccine ?

    (1) BCG
    (2) Anti-rabies
    (3) Polio vaccine
    (4) Progesterone
    363. (4) Progesterone is one of the hormones in our bodies that stimulates and regulates various functions. Progesterone plays a role in maintaining pregnancy. The hormone is produced in the ovaries, the placenta (when a woman gets pregnant) and the adrenal glands. It helps prepare your body for conception and pregnancy and regulates the monthly menstrual cycle. It also plays a role in sexual desire.

    364. The disease that is caused by virus is

    (1) Typhoid 
    (2) Cholera
    (3) Common Cold 
    (4) Tetanus
    364. (3) Common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which affects primarily the nose. Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 viruses are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to three colds a year and the average child contracting between six and twelve.

    365. The locomotory organ of ‘Amoeba’ is

    (1) Pseudopodia
    (2) Parapodia
    (3) Flagella 
    (4) Cilia
    365. (1) Pseudopods or pseudopodia (singular: pseudopodium) are temporary projections of eukaryotic
    cells. Cells that possess this faculty are generally referred to as amoeboids. Pseudopodia extend and
    contract by the reversible assembly of actin subunits into microfilaments. Filaments near the cell’s end
    interact with myosin which causes contraction. The pseudopodium extends itself until the actin
    reassembles itself into a network. This is how amoebas move, as well as some cells found in animals, such as white blood cells. They are most commonly found on eubacteria.

    366. The number of chromosomes present in normal human being are

    (1) 23 
    (2) 46
    (3) 22 
    (4) 48
    366. (2) A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes and sex chromosomes. Certain genetic traits are linked to a person’s sex and are passed on through the sex chromosomes. The autosomes contain the rest of the genetic hereditary information. All act in the same way during cell division. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell.

    367. An instrument for measuring blood pressure is called

    (1) Barometer
    (2) Spirometer
    (3) Sphygmomanometer
    (4) Haemocytometer
    367. (3) A sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. It is always used in conjunction with a means to determine at what pressure blood flow is just starting, and at what pressure it is unimpeded. Manual sphygmomanometers are used in conjunction with a stethoscope. The device was invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881. Scipione Riva-Rocci introduced a more easily used version in 1896. In 1901, Harvey Cushing
    modernized the device and popularized it within the medical community.

    368. The term ‘Rh factor’ refers to

    (1) Rhesus factor
    (2) Rheumatoid factor
    (3) Renal factor
    (4) Rhombic factor
    368. (1) Each person’s blood is one of four major types: A, B, AB, or O. Blood types are determined by the types of antigens on the blood cells. Antigens are proteins on the surface of blood cells that can cause a response from the immune system. The Rh factor (Rhesus factor) is a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people who have the Rh factor are Rhpositive. Those who do not have the Rh factor are Rh-negative. In contrast to the ABO blood group, immunization against Rh can generally only occur through blood transfusion or placental exposure during pregnancy in women.

    369. The discoverer of pencillin was

    (1) Lord Lister
    (2) Alexander Fleming
    (3) Karl Landsteiner
    (4) Walter Reed
    369. (2) Penicillin is one of the earliest discovered and widely used antibiotic agents, derived from the
    Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are natural substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into their
    environment, as a means of inhibiting other organisms. In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming observed that colonies of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus could be destroyed by the mold Penicillium notatum,
    proving that there was an antibacterial agent there in principle. This principle later lead to medicines
    that could kill certain types of disease-causing bacteria inside the body.

    370. Blood groups were discovered by

    (1) Altmann
    (2) Landsteiner
    (3) Losch
    (4) Ronald Ross
    370. (2) Karl Landsteiner was an Austrian biologist and physician. He is noted for having first distinguished the main blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of classification of blood groups from his identification of the presence of agglutinins in the blood, and having identified, with Alexander S. Wiener, the Rhesus factor, in 1937, thus enabling physicians to transfuse blood without endangering the patient’s life. With Constantin Levaditi and Erwin Popper, he discovered the polio virus, in 1909. In 1930 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was awarded a Lasker Award in 1946 posthumously and is recognised as the father of transfusion medicine.

    371. The animal which can tolerate more summer heat is

    (1) Buffalo 
    (2) Cow
    (3) Goat 
    (4) Donkey
    371. (3) Some livestock (and people) tolerate heat better than others. Sheep and goats tend to be less
    susceptible to heat stress than swine, cattle, llamas, and alpacas. Hair sheep usually tolerate heat better
    than wooled sheep. This is why they are often used for training and trialing herding dogs. Fat-tailed sheep are also more heat tolerant. The European sheep breeds are usually the least heat-adaptive because they tend to have shorter bodies and legs, short, thick ears, tight skin, and dense fleeces. Goats tend to tolerate heat better than sheep. Goats with loose skin and floppy ears may be more heat tolerant than other goats.

    372. According to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, long necks in giraffes

    (1) arose because of constant attempt to reach leaves on tall trees, generation after generation
    (2) do not give them any special advantage and is just an accident
    (3) give them advantage in finding food, because of which those with long necks survive
    (4) is a result of the special weather prevalent in African Savannah
    372. (1) Darwin was the first to propose that long necks evolved in giraffes because they enabled the animals to eat foliage beyond the reach of shorter browsers. Darwin himself wrote ‘… it seems to me almost certain that an ordinary hoofed quadruped might be converted into a giraffe.’ He speculated that fourlegged animals with longer and longer necks would be capable of reaching higher leaves and vegetation. Thus, during droughts, they would be more likely to survive and pass on this characteristic, than those with shorter necks. Over time, a creature that was not a giraffe would evolve into a giraffe with an extraordinarily long neck.

    373. Rickets is the deficiency disease of Vitamin D, in which the affected part is the

    (1) skin 
    (2) hair
    (3) bone 
    (4) blood
    373. (3) Rickets is a softening of bones in children due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Rickets is among the most
    frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries. The predominant cause is a vitamin D
    deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets (cases of severe diarrhea
    and vomiting may be the cause of the deficiency). Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases
    occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually resulting from famine or starvation during
    the early stages of childhood.

    374. ‘Darwin finches’ refers to a group of

    (1) Fishes 
    (2) Lizards
    (3) Birds 
    (4) Amphibians
    374. (3) Darwin’s finches (also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group of about 15 species of passerine birds. They often are classified as the subfamily Geospizinae or tribe Geospizini. It is still not clear which bird family they belong to, but they are not related to the true finches. They were first collected by Charles Darwin on the Galápagos Islands during the second voyage of the Beagle. All are found only on the Galápagos Islands, except the Cocos Island Finch from Cocos Island.

    375. The dried flower buds are used as a spice in

    (1) Cardamom 
    (2) Cinnamon
    (3) Cloves 
    (3) Saffron
    375. (3) Cloves are the dried flower buds of an evergreen tree native to eastern Indonesia. Cloves are a versatile spice that can be used in drinks and in both sweet and savoury dishes.

    376. The tissue in man where no cell division occurs after birth is

    (1) skeletal 
    (2) nerves
    (3) connective 
    (4) germinal
    376. (2) Cell division is the process by which cells produce new cells. Cell division differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants, & animals). Some tissues must be repaired often such as the lining of gut, white blood cells, skin cells with a short lifespan. Other cells do not divide at all after birth such as muscle & nerve.

    377. DNA fingerprinting is used to identify the

    (1) Parents 
    (2) Rapist
    (3) Thieves 
    (4) All the above
    377. (4) DNA profiling (genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person’s DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person’s identifier. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing. It is used in, for example, parental testing and criminal investigation.

    378. The normal cholesterol level in human blood is

    (1) 80 – 120 mg%
    (2) 120 – 140 mg%
    (3) 140 – 180 mg%
    (4) 180 – 200 mg%
    378. (4) Cholesterol is defined as a waxy alcohol, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all areas of the human body. 100-200 mg/dL is considered as normal for the human beings. However it must be noted that total cholesterol counts below 180 mg/dl increase the risk for hemorrhagic stroke; below 180 cholesterol levels are inversely associated with risk. Total cholesterol counts above 200 mg/dl may be normal and healthy for some people, as the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol is considered a more important factor in prediction of disease risk. Women tend to benefit more from an increase in HDL rather than lowering of LDL, whereas men tend to benefit from a decrease in LDL when cholesterol abnormalities or heart disease risk factors exist.

    379. Which of the following are warm-blooded animals ?

    (1) Whales
    (2) Whale Sharks
    (3) Alytes 
    (4) Draco
    379. (1) Animals, such as mammals and birds, that maintain a constant body temperature regardless of the temperature of the surroundings are called warm blooded. It describes animal species which have a
    relatively higher blood temperature, and maintain thermal homeostasis primarily through internal
    metabolic processes. Examples of warm blooded animals include: mammals, cats, dogs, humans, giraffes, elephants, bears, beavers, chickens, monkeys, whales, deer, cows, wolf, birds, etc. Cold
    Blooded animals use external means to control their body temperature. These ectothermic methods include basking in the sun, hiding in the shade, changes in metabolic rate. Some animals’ body temperature even change with there environment. Animals that fall into this category are: fish, insects, spiders, frogs, snakes, alligators, toads, turtles, sharks, etc.

    380. Syrinx is the voice box in

    (1) Amphibians 
    (2) Reptiles
    (3) Birds 
    (4) Mammals
    380. (3) Syrinx is the name for the vocal organ of birds. Located at the base of a bird’s trachea, it produces sounds without the vocal cords of mammals. The sound is produced by vibrations of some or all of the membrana tympaniformis (the walls of the syrinx) and the pessulus caused by air flowing through the syrinx. This sets up a self-oscillating system which modulates the airflow creating the sound. The muscles modulate the sound shape by changing the tension of the membranes and the bronchial openings. The syrinx enables some species of birds (such as parrots, crows, and mynas) to mimic human speech.

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