Biology GK Questions Quiz-7

Biology GK Questions Quiz-7

Biology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Biology for competitive examinations.

    121. Which one of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine ?

    (1) Creatinine 
    (2) Urea
    (3) Uric acid 
    (4)Ketone bodies
    121. (4) Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver. Two of the three are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain while the third is a waste product excreted from the body. When the rate of synthesis of ketone bodies exceeds the rate of utilization, their concentration in blood increases, this is known as
    ketonemia. This is followed by ketonuria- excretion of ketone bodies in urine.

    122. Which one of the following cells produces antibodies ?

    (1) Eosinophil 
    (2) Monocyte
    (3) Basophil 
    (4) Lymphocytes
    122. (4) Antibodies are secreted by a type of Lymphocytes (White Blood cell). Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor (BCR). An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped protein produced by lymphocytes that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen.

    123. The Vitamin which helps in clotting of blood is :

    (1) A 
    (2) D
    (3) B 
    (4) K
    123. (4) Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fatsoluble vitamins that are needed for the post
    translational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation and in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. They are 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone (3) derivatives. This group of vitamins
    includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone,
    phytomenadione, or phytonadione, is synthesized by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It may be thought of as the “plant
    form” of vitamin K. It is active in animals since animals can easily convert it to vitamin K2.

    124. At very high altitude, the Red Blood Corpuscles in the human body will :

    (1) increase in size
    (2) decrease in size
    (3) increase in number
    (4) decrease in number
    124. (1) Red Blood cells contain haemoglobin which is what the oxygen binds with to form oxyhaemoglobin which is then transported to the different cells around the body. Oxygen bonds with the haemoglobin when it is at high partial pressure and then is released when there is a lower partial pressure of oxygen. At high altitudes there is lower atmospheric pressure of oxygen. This means that the current number of red blood cells in the body cannot meet the cells demands for oxygen. Due to the lower partial pressure of oxygen a process called polycythemia occurs, which is an increase in the bodies red blood cell count. The body increases its red blood cell count because this means there is more haemoglobin available to bond with oxygen molecules meaning more oxygen can be transported to the cells in the body, therefore helping to meet the oxygen demands of the body even with less oxygen in the air.

    125. A test tube baby means :

    (1) a baby grown in a test tube.
    (2) embryo fertilised in uterus and developed in test tube.
    (3) embryo fertilised and developed in uterus.
    (4) fertilisation in vitro and then transplantation in the uterus.
    125. (4) In vitro fertilisation is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring a woman’s ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. When a woman’s natural cycle is monitored to collect a naturally selected ovum (egg) for fertilisation, it is known as natural cycle IVF. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient’s uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a “test tube baby”, Louise Brown, occurred in 1978.

    126. The metal present in insulin is

    (1) Copper 
    (2) Iron
    (3) Zinc 
    (4) Magnesium
    126. (3) Insulin storage vesicles in humans and many other species contain high concentrations of Zn2+ and Ca2+ ions. Zinc plays an important role in insulin hexamerisation, which is closely related to some of the processes in insulin biosynthesis and storage.

    127. Roundworm is a human parasite found in the

    (1) Small intestine
    (2) Liver 
    (3) Stomach
    (4) Large intestine
    127. (4) Roundworms, or nematodes, are a group of invertebrates (animals having no backbone) with long, round bodies. Most parasitic roundworm eggs or larvae (immature form) are found in the soil and enter the human body when a person picks them up on the hands and then transfers them to the mouth. The eggs or larvae also can enter the human body directly through the skin. With the exception of the parasitic roundworm that causes trichinosis, mature adult roundworms eventually end up or live in human large intestines and cause infection and disease.

    128. Which of the following is a rich source of Vitamin B-12?

    (1) Cashew nut
    (2) Milk 
    (3) Apple
    (4) Watermelon
    128. (2) Vitamin B12 also called cobalamin, is a watersoluble vitamin with a key role in the normal
    functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. Vitamin B12 is found in foods that come from animals, including fish and shellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products. While lacto-ovo vegetarians usually get enough B12 through consuming dairy products, vegans will lack B12 unless they consume B12-containing dietary supplements or B12- fortified foods.

    129. What is the number of chromosomes in a normal human body cell ?

    (1) 43 
    (2) 44
    (3) 45 
    (4) 46
    129. (4) A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell.

    130. Xerophthalmia is a deficiency disease caused by lack of

    (1) Vitamin A 
    (2) Vitamin B
    (3) Vitamin C 
    (4) Vitamin D
    130. (1) Xerophthalmia is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. It may be caused by a deficiency in vitamin A and is sometimes used to describe that lack, although there may be other
    causes. Xerophthalmia caused by a severe vitamin A deficiency is described by pathologic dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea. The conjunctiva becomes dry, thick and wrinkled. If untreated, it can lead to corneal ulceration and ultimately to blindness as a result of corneal damage.

    131. Out of the following glands which is referred to as the master gland?

    (1) Thyroid 
    (2) Adrenal gland
    (3) Pituitary 
    (4) Pancreas
    131. (3) The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull between the optic nerves. The pituitary gland secretes hormones. Hormones are chemicals that travel through our blood stream. The pituitary is sometimes referred to as the “master gland” as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females. In effect the gland functions as our thermostat that controls all other glands that are responsible for hormone secretion.

    132. What is an antibiotic ?

    (1) A chemical compound produced by a living organism that inhibits the growth of other organisms
    (2) A compound synthesised by a living organism that inhibits the growth of microbes
    (3) A synthetic compound inhibiting the growth of other organisms
    (4) A synthetic compound inhibiting the growth of bacteria
    132. (4) Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin, in 1927. The term “antibiotic” originally referred to a natural compound produced by a fungus or another microorganism that kills bacteria which cause disease in humans or animals. Some antibiotics may be synthetic compounds (not produced by microorganisms) that can also kill or inhibit the growth of microbes.

    133. Carbohydrate is stored in the body as

    (1) glucose 
    (2) starch
    (3) glycogen 
    (4) sucrose
    133. (3) Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles,
    and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage (with the primary energy stores being fats
    held in adipose tissue). Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer in plants, and is sometimes referred to as animal starch, having a similar structure to amylopectin but more extensively branched and compact than starch. Polysaccharide represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.

    134. Which was the first enzyme isolated in pure crystalline form ?

    (1) Amylase 
    (2) Catalase
    (3) Lipase 
    (4) Clrease
    134. (*) The first enzyme molecule to be isolated in pure crystalline form was urease, prepared from the jack bean in 1926 by American biochemist J. B. Sumner, who suggested, contrary to prevailing opinion, that the molecule was a protein. In the period from 1930 to 1936, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin were successfully crystallized; it was confirmed that the crystals were protein, and the protein nature of
    enzymes was thereby firmly established. Urease is found in bacteria, yeast, and several higher plants.

    135. Process of digestion is helped by

    (1) Enzyme 
    (2) Hormone
    (3) Mineral 
    (4) Vitamin
    135. (1) Enzymes are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of chemical inter-conversions that sustain life. They are highly selective catalysts, greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions, from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA. Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzymes such as amylases and proteases break down large molecules (starch or proteins, respectively) into smaller ones, so they can be absorbed by the intestines. Starch molecules, for example, are too large to be absorbed from the intestine, but enzymes hydrolyze the starch chains into smaller molecules such as maltose and eventually glucose, which can then be absorbed. Different enzymes digest different food substances.

    136. Which is the organ that excretes water, fat and various catabolic wastes ?

    (1) Kidney 
    (2) Skin
    (3) Spleen 
    (4) Salivary glands
    136. (1) The kidneys are organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium, and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids.

    137. EEG is used to detect the functioning of

    (1) Heart 
    (2) Lung
    (3) Kidney 
    (4) Brain
    137. (1) The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart in exquisite detail. The heart is a two stage electrical pump and the heart’s electrical activity can be measured by electrodes placed on the skin. The electrocardiogram can measure the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat, as well as provide indirect evidence of blood flow to the heart muscle.

    138. Locked jaw disorder is the other name of the disease

    (1) Tetanus
    (2) Muscular disorder
    (3) Typhoid
    (4) Filariasis
    138. (1) Locked jaw syndrome is a disorder that is related to our jaw joint. It causes severe pain and sometimes cannot open the mouth. Tetanus, commonly called locked jaw, is a bacterial disease that affects the nervous system. Persons who have not been vaccinated adequately against tetanus are the most likely to get the disease. Tetanus occurs more often in older people who have not received adequate booster doses of vaccine and in agricultural workers where contact with animal manure is more likely. A common first sign of tetanus is muscular stiffness in the jaw (lockjaw), followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, rigidity of abdominal muscles, and spasms.

    139. Excretory products of mammalian embryo are eliminated out by

    (1) Placenta 
    (2) Amniotic fluid
    (3) Allantois 
    (4) Ureter
    139. (1) The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient
    uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother’s blood supply. “True” placentas are a defining characteristic of eutherian or “placental” mammals, but are also found in some snakes and lizards with varying levels of development up to mammalian levels.

    140. In male sharks, Claspers are found attached to

    (1) Anal fin 
    (2) Pectoral fin
    (3) Pelvic fin 
    (4) Ventral fin
    140. (3) Claspers are organs that found on male elasmobranchs. Each male has two claspers. They
    are located along the inner side of the shark or ray’s pelvic fin and are used in reproduction. During
    mating, the male deposits his sperm into the female’s cloaca (the opening that serves as the entrance to
    the uterus, intestine and urinary tract) via grooves that lie in the upper side of the claspers. Since the
    sperm is transferred into the female, these animals mate via internal fertilization, which is different from some other fish, who release their sperm and eggs into the water rather than mating.

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