Biology GK Questions Quiz-73

Biology GK Questions Quiz-73

Biology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Biology for competitive examinations.

    1441.Fermentation is a type of ________ process .

    (1) Aerobic Respiration
    (2) Anaerobic Respiration
    (3) Exothermic Reaction
    (4) Transpiration
    Answer:
    1441.(2) Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. It also occurs in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation.

    1442.Bacterial decomposition of biological material under anaerobic condition is

    (1) fermentation
    (2) fertilization
    (3) contamination
    (4) composting
    Answer:
    1442.(1) Fermentation is the process by which complex organic compounds, such as glucose, are broken down by the action of enzymes into simpler compounds in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic). Yeasts can convert sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide by fermentation. Fermentation is used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products.

    1443.The elements known as primary nutrients for plants

    (1) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium
    (2) Nitrogen, Oxygen and Silicon
    (3) Potassium, Boron and Nitrogen
    (4) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Iron
    Answer:
    1443.(1) Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) are considered as the three essential or primary nutrients for plants. Together they make up the trio known as NPK. Other important nutrients are calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Plants also need small quantities of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron and molybdenum, known as trace elements.

    1444.A genetically engineered form of brinjal known as the BT brinjal has been developed. The objective of this is

    (1) to make it pest resistant
    (2) to improve its taste and nutritive value
    (3) to make it drought resistant
    (4) to make its shelflife longer
    Answer:
    1444.(1) Bt Brinjal is a genetically modified (GM) crop created by inserting Cry 1Ac gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into Brinjal. The insertion of the gene gives Brinjal plant resistance against lepidopteron pets/insects like the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and Fruit Borer (Helicoverpa armigera).

    1445.Which of the following is least likely to be an effect of global warming?

    (1) Increased frequency of hurricanes
    (2) Loss of fertile delta region as for agriculture
    (3) Decreased rate of photosynthesis in vegetation
    (4) Shrinking of the polar ice regions
    Answer:
    1445.(3) Global warming is the current increase in temperature of the Earth’s surface (both land and water) as well as it’s atmosphere. Climatologists believe that it will lead to extreme weather conditions such as increase in the frequency and strength of hurricanes, increase in sea level and submergence of deltaic regions due to melting of polar ice, coupled with melting ice sheets and glaciers across Greenland, North America, South America, Europe and Asia. However, the gradual heating of Earth’s surface, oceans and atmosphere will not affect photosynthesis.

    1446.Growing agricultural crops between rows of planted trees is known as

    (1) Social forestry
    (2) Jhum
    (3) Taungya system
    (4) Agro forestry
    Answer:
    1446.(3) The Taungya system involves growing agricultural crops between rows of planted trees (sal, teak, etc). Along with jhum cultivation, it is one of the well-known systems of agro forestry programmes in practice in our country.

    1447.Which of the following increases the rate of heart beat?

    (1) Peripheral nerves
    (2) Sympathetic nerves
    (3) Parasympathetic nerves
    (4) Cranial nerves
    Answer:
    1447.(2) Heart rate is controlled by the two branches of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) releases the hormones (catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine) to accelerate the heart rate. The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) releases the hormone acetylcholine to slow the heart rate.

    1448.The deficiency of Niacin-a vitamin of B complex group causes the disease _____

    (1) Marasmus
    (2) Pellagra
    (3) Rickets
    (4) Nightblindness
    Answer:
    1448.(2) Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease most frequently caused by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet. It can be caused by decreased intake of niacin or tryptophan, and possibly by excessive intake of leucine. It may also result from alterations in protein metabolism in disorders such as carcinoid syndrome or Hartnup disease.

    1449.A pair of contrasting characters controlling the same trait is called

    (1) factors 
    (2) loci
    (3) allele 
    (4) lineage
    Answer:
    1449.(3) An allele is one of a pair of genes that appear at a particular location on a particular chromosome and control the same characteristic, such as blood type or colorblindness. Alleles are also called alleleomorphs. If the two alleles are identical, the individual is called a homozygote; when the two alleles are different, the individual is a heterozygote.

    1450.Algal bloom results from

    (1) Global warming
    (2) Salination
    (3) Eutrophication
    (4) Biomagnification
    Answer:
    1450.(3) An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and are recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments. Algal
    blooms are the consequence of the enrichment of a water body with nutrients, usually with an excess
    amount of nutrients. This is known as eutrophication.

    1451.Which of the following is a Dominant Autosomal Disorder?

    (1) Albinism
    (2) Cystic Fibrosis
    (3) Phenyl Ketorunia
    (4) Alzheimer’s Disease
    Answer:
    1451.(4) In an autosomal dominant disorder, the mutated gene is a dominant gene located on one of the nonsex chromosomes (autosomes). The early-onset form of Alzheimer disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the altered gene from one affected parent.

    1452.What is the transplantation of graft between genetically identical individuals ?

    (1) Autograft 
    (2) Isograft
    (3) Allograft 
    (4) Xenograft
    Answer:
    1452.(2) An isogenic graft or isograft is a graft between genetically identical individuals(i.e. monozygotic twins). Typically, isografts are either grafts between animals of a single highly inbred strain, between the F1 hybrids produced by crossing inbred strains, or between identical twins.

    1453.Which one of the following forms the base of vegetable fibres?

    (1) Cellulose 
    (2) Proteins
    (3) Fats 
    (4) Oils
    Answer:
    1453.(1) The principal chemical component of vegetable fibers is cellulose, with varying amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses also usually present; thus, the fibers are also referred to as cellulosic or lignocellulosic. Examples include cotton, hemp, jute, flax, ramie, sisal, bagasse, and banana. Vegetable fibers are usually stiffer but less tough than synthetic fibers.

    1454.Which light is least effective in photosynthesis?

    (1) Blue light
    (2) Green light
    (3) Red light 
    (4) Sunlight
    Answer:
    1454.(2) Green is the least effective color of light in driving photosynthesis, the process of converting light energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and algae using chlorophyll, and because chlorophyll reflects rather than absorbs green light, green light cannot be used in the photosynthetic process.

    1455.The maximum fixation of solar energy is done by

    (1) Bacteria 
    (2) Protozoa
    (3) Fungi 
    (4) Green plants
    Answer:
    1455.(4) The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in plants and algae. Approximately two thirds of the net global photosynthetic productivity worldwide is of terrestrial green plant origin. The remainder is produced mainly by phytoplankton (microalgae) in the oceans. Approximately 114 kilocalories of free energy are stored in plant biomass for every mole of CO2 fixed during photosynthesis.

    1456.Lichen is an association between which of the two ?

    (1) Algae and fungus
    (2) Algae and tree
    (3) Fungus and tree
    (4) Bacteria and legume plant
    Answer:
    1456.(1) A lichen is an organism that is formed by the symbiotic association of a fungus and an algae or cyanobacterium. It occurs as crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks, bare ground, etc. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants.

    1457.Among the given nutrients, milk is a poor source of which of the following ?

    (1) Vitamin ‘C’
    (2) Calcium
    (3) Protein
    (4) Carbohydrate
    Answer:
    1457.(1) Milk is a poor source of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). It contains about 1 mg ascorbate per 100 g.
    Even the little Vitamin C is usually destroyed when the milk is heat treated. The richest sources of ascorbic acid are fruits and vegetables. Milk is a good source of retinol and thiamin.

    1458.What is a Pepper plant ?

    (1) Bush 
    (2) Shrub
    (3) Vine 
    (4) Tree
    Answer:
    1458.(3) Pepper plant is a vine. It is a climber and hence it needs support of some other plant (called standard) to climb. Pepper plants have long, vigorous vines and can reach twelve to fifteen feet high. The plants need a strong trellis or structure to scramble over. In addition to its culinary value, pepper makes a lovely houseplant with its glossy, evergreen leaves.

    1459.Among the following which one lays eggs and does not produce young ones directly?

    (1) Echidna 
    (2) Kangaroo
    (3) Porcupine 
    (4) Whale
    Answer:
    1459.(1) Along with duck-billed platypus, the four species are among the five species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. Echidna, also known as the Spiny Anteater, is a primitive oviparous (egg-laying) mammal that lives in Australia and New Guinea. Echidnas lay a single egg in a pouch on the female’s belly.

    1460.BCG is vaccine meant for protection against which of the following diseases?

    (1) Mumps 
    (2) Tuberculosis
    (3) Leprosy 
    (4) Tetanus
    Answer:
    1460.(2) Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis. The vaccine was originally developed from Mycobacterium bovis which is commonly found in cows. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system,

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