Discovery & Inventions GK Quiz-2

Discovery & Inventions GK Quiz-2

Discovery & Inventions Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Discovery & Inventions for competitive examinations.

    21. Electron was discovered by

    (1) Ernest Rutherford
    (2) Max Planck
    (3) Joseph Thomson
    (4) Albert Einstein
    Answer:
    21. (3) The electron is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. The intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of the electron is a half-integer value in units of h, which means that it is a fermion. Like all matter, they have quantum mechanical properties of both particles and waves, so they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. The electron was identified as a particle in 1897 by J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists.

    22. The first thermionic valve was invented by

    (1) Thomas Edison
    (2) Richardson
    (3) J.A. Fleming
    (4) Lee De Forest
    Answer:
    22. (3) In electronics, a vacuum tube, thermionic valve, tube, or valve is a device controlling electric current through a vacuum in a sealed container. The container is often thin transparent glass in a roughly cylindrical shape. Sir John Ambrose Fleming (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, the diode, then called the kenotron in 1904. He is also famous for the left hand rule (for electric motors).

    23. Gunpowder was invented by

    (1) Roger Bacon 
    (2) Colt
    (3) C.V. Raman 
    (4) Dr. Gatting
    Answer:
    23. (1) Gunpowder was the first chemical explosive and the only one known until the invention of nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder, and TNT in the second half of the 19th century. Prior to the invention of gunpowder, many incendiary and burning devices had been used, including Greek fire. Roger Bacon invented gunpowder.

    24. For which invention is Otto Hahn famous?

    (1) Atom bomb 
    (2) Television
    (3) X-rays
    (4) Miner’s safety lamp
    Answer:
    24. (1) Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as “the father of nuclear chemistry”. Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society (MPG) from 1948 to 1960. He is famous for invention of atomic bomb.

    25. Leprosy bacillus was invented by

    (1) Koch 
    (2) Hansen
    (3) Fleming 
    (4) Harvey
    Answer:
    25. (1) Mycobacteriumleprae, the causative agent of leprosy, was discovered by G. H. Armauer Hansen
    in Norway in 1873. Hansen observed a number of nonrefractile small rods in unstained tissue sections.
    The rods were not soluble in potassium lye, and they were acid- and alcohol-fast. In 1879, he was able to stain these organisms with Ziehl’s method and the similarities with Koch’s bacillus (Mycobacterium
    tuberculosis) were noted. 

    26. X–rays were discovered by

    (1) Becquerel 
    (2)Roentgen
    (3) Marie Curie 
    (4)Van Lue
    Answer:
    26. (2) X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen, who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it Xradiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.

    27. Who discovered cement?

    (1) Agassit
    (2) Albertus Magnus
    (3) Joseph Aspdin
    (4) Janseen
    Answer:
    27. (3) Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word “cement” traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. Joseph Aspdin was a British cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.

    28. Who discovered North Pole ?

    (1) Amundson 
    (2)Robert Peary
    (3) John Cobot 
    (4) Captain Cook
    Answer:
    28. (2) The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines geodetic latitude 90° North as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of longitude converge there, so its longitude can be defined as any degree value. Robert Edwin Peary was an American explorer who claimed to have led the first expedition, on April 6, 1909, to reach the geographic North Pole.

    29. Bacteria was first discovered by

    (1) A.V. Leeuwenhoek
    (2) Robert Hooke
    (3) Robert Koch
    (4) Louis Pasteur
    Answer:
    29. (1) Van Leeuwenhoek discovered “protozoa” - the single-celled organisms and he called them
    “animalcules”. He also improved the microscope and laid foundation for microbiology. He is often cited as the first microbiologist to study muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries. Although, he did not have much education or a scientific background, yet he defied all odds to be reckoned as a great scientist through his skillful observations, insight and unmatched curiosity. He
    revolutionized biological science by exposing microscopic life to the world.

    30. Electron microscope was discovered by

    (1) Garhn and Shortt
    (2) Knoll and Ruska
    (3) Farmer and Moore
    (4) Janseen and Janseen
    Answer:
    30. (2) The electron microscope was invented by Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska in 1931 (Germany). An electron microscope uses condensing lenses to focus a beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen and produce a magnified image. An electron microscope (EM) has greater resolving power than a light-powered optical microscope because electrons have wavelengths about 100,000 times shorter than visible light photons. The electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic “lenses” to control the electron beam and focus it to form an image. These lenses are analogous to but different from the glass lenses of an optical microscope that forms a magnified image by focusing light on or through the specimen.

    31. Who invented penicillin ?

    (1) Alexander Fleming
    (2) Louis Pasteur
    (3) Dreser
    (4) Edward Jenner
    Answer:
    31. (1) The discovery of penicillin is attributed to Scottish scientist and Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming in 1928. Penicillin is a secondary metabolite of certain species of Penicillium and is produced when growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress. It is not produced during active growth.

    32. Who invented vaccination for 'Small Pox'?

    (1) Sir Fredrick Grant Banting
    (2) Sir Alexander Fleming
    (3) Edward Jenner
    (4) Louis Pasteur
    Answer:
    32. (3) The smallpox vaccine was the first successful vaccine to be developed. The process of vaccination was first publicised by Edward Jenner in 1796, who acted upon his observation that milkmaids who caught the cowpox virus did not catch smallpox. Before the introduction of a vaccine, the mortality of the severe form of smallpox—variola major—was very high. Historical records show that a method of inducing immunity was already known. A process called inoculation, also known as insufflation or variolation was practiced in India as early as 1000 BC.

    33. Who invented the Jet Engine?

    (1) Karl Benz
    (2) Sir Frank Whittle
    (3) Thomas Savery
    (4) Michael Faraday
    Answer:
    33. (2) Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet engine. Each worked separately and knew nothing of the other’s work. Hans von Ohain is considered the designer of the first operational turbojet engine. Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent for the turbojet engine in 1930. Hans von Ohain was granted a patent for his turbojet engine in 1936. However, Hans von Ohain’s jet was the first to fly in 1939. Frank Whittle’s jet first flew in 1941.

    34. X-rays were discovered by –

    (1) Faraday
    (2) Roentgen
    (3) H. Davy 
    (4) Lavoisier
    Answer:
    34. (2) X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen, who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it Xradiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.

    35. Who invented vaccination?

    (1) James Simpson
    (2) Edward Jenner
    (3) Alexander Fleming
    (4) Christian Barnard
    Answer:
    35. (2) The smallpox vaccine was the first successful vaccine to be developed. The process of vaccination was first publicised by Edward Jenner in 1796, who acted upon his observation that milkmaids who caught the cowpox virus did not catch smallpox. Before the introduction of a vaccine, the mortality of the severe form of smallpox—variola major—was very high. Historical records show that a method of inducing immunity was already known. A process called inoculation, also known as insufflation or variolation was practiced in India as early as 1000 BC.

    36. Who invented chloroform as anaesthetic?

    (1) James Simpson
    (2) Edward Jenner
    (3) Alexander Fleming
    (4) Christian Barnard
    Answer:
    36. (1) Sir James Young Simpson was a Scottish and an important figure in the history of medicine. Simpson discovered the anaesthetic properties of chloroform and successfully introduced it for general medical use. Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is one of the four chloromethanes. The colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid is a trihalomethane, and is considered somewhat hazardous. Several million tons are produced annually as a precursor to Teflon and refrigerants, but its use for refrigerants is being phased out.

    37. The telephone was invented by:

    (1) G. Marconi
    (2) Alexander Graham Bell
    (3) J.L. Baird
    (4) Thomas Barrow
    Answer:
    37. (2) In the 1870s, two inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other; Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.

    38. Who invented the hydrogen bomb?

    (1) J.Robert Oppenheimer
    (2) Albert Einstein
    (3) Samuel Cohen
    (4) Edward Taylor
    Answer:
    38. (4) Edward Taylor was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb.” Taylor made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics,
    spectroscopy (the Jahn–Taylor and Renner–Taylor effects), and surface physics.

    39. Who invented Cinema?

    (1) Thomas Alva Edison
    (2) Nicolas and Jean Lumiere
    (3) William Murdock
    (4) Dr. J. Brandenberger
    Answer:
    39. (2) The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis and Louis Jean were the earliest filmmakers in history. The Lumières held their first private screening of projected motion pictures in 1895. Their first public screening of films at which admission was charged was held on December 28, 1895, at Salon Indien du Grand Café in Paris.

    40. Who invented Portland Cement?

    (1) Leonardo da Vinci
    (2) Denis Gason
    (3) Joseph Aspdin
    (4) Percy L. Spencer
    Answer:
    40. (3) Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer from Leeds, is considered to be the originator of Portland cement. A process for the manufacture of Portland cement was patented in 1824. This cement was an artificial cement similar in properties to the material known as "Roman cement.” Aspdin's process was similar to a process patented in 1822 and used since 1811 by James Frost who called his cement "British Cement".

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