History GK Quiz-28

History GK Quiz-28

History Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on History for competitive examinations.

    121. Gandhi wanted to realise ‘truth’ through :

    (1) Ahimsa (Non-violence)
    (2) Dharma (Religion)
    (3) Karma (Service)
    (4) Dhyana (Meditation)
    121. (1) To Gandhi, truth occupied the first place and Ahimsa, the second. In the course of pursuit of truth, he discovered Ahimsa. He wanted to realize truth through Ahimsa. To him truth was harmony of thoughts with words and of words with actions.

    122. The Round table conference at London met for the discussion of

    (1) Provision of Provincial Autonomy
    (2) A future Administration of India
    (3) Gandhi’s demands for calling off Civil Disobedience Movement
    (4) Congress claim to be the sole representative of Indians
    122. (2) Round Table Conference (1930–32), in Indian history, was a series of meetings in three sessions called by the British government to consider the future constitution of India. The conference resulted from a review of the Government of India Act of 1919, undertaken in 1927 by the Simon Commission, whose report was published in 1930. The conference was held in London.

    123. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was equated with

    (1) Mazzini 
    (2) Cavour
    (3) Garibaldi 
    (4) Bismarck
    123. (4) Sardar Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel played an unparalleled role in the country’s struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. Therefore he is also regarded as the “Bismarck of India” and “Iron Man of India”. In India and across the world, he was often addressed as Sardar, which means Chief in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.

    124. For which community were seats reserved by the Morley-Minto reforms ?

    (1) Jews 
    (2) Muslims
    (3) Christians 
    (4) Sikhs
    124. (2) The Indian Councils Act 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, gave the right of separate electorate to the Muslims. Before these reforms, Muslims had expressed serious concern that a ‘first past the post’ British type of electoral system would leave them permanently subject to Hindu majority rule. The Act of 1909 stipulated, as demanded by the Muslim leadership that Indian Muslims be allotted reserved seats in the Municipal and District Boards, in the Provincial Councils and in the Imperial Legislature; that the number of reserved seats be in excess of their relative population (25 percent of the Indian population); and, that only Muslims should vote for candidates for the Muslim seats (‘separate electorates’).

    125. In Gandhian Socialism

    (1) State is required
    (2) State is not required
    (3) State is sometimes required and sometimes not required
    (4) State is neither required nor not required
    125. (2) Gandhian socialism is the branch of socialism based on theories of Gandhi. The theory is inspired from Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule written by Gandhi. Decentralization of political and economical power, Skeptic approach towards technology and large scale industrialization, Emphasis on Self-employment, Emphasis on self-reliance are the few features of Gandhian Socialism. Gandhi repudiated both State and reformist socialism because the first attempted to impose socialism from the top, whilst the second tolerated and sometimes even condoned violence as an inescapable means to attain its ends.

    126. Who said “The Simon Commission Report should be thrown on a heap of rubbish” ?

    (1) Mahatma Gandhi
    (2) Shivaswami Ayyar
    (3) Mohammad Ali Jinnah
    (4) Jawaharlal Nehru
    126. (2) Those were the words of Shivaswami Iyer who was a prominent lawyer, administrator and statesman who served as the Advocate General of Madras from 1907 to 1911. He was the Indian delegate to the third session of the League of Nations in 1922 in which, he condemned the mandate policy of General Smuts of the Republic of South Africa. Shivaswami Iyer served as a member of the Council of State from 1922 to 1923. He also opposed the Simon Commission on its arrival in India.

    127. The Marathas were defeated at Panipat because

    (1) The Marathas did not fight bravely
    (2) The Marathas were not equal to Afghans in strength
    (3) The Martha army was short of food supplies
    (4) The Marathas were considered alien by the local population
    127. (2) In the battle, Ahmad Shah Abdali had both numeric as well as qualitative superiority over Marathas. The combined Muslim army was much larger than that of Marathas. Though the infantry of Marathas was organized along European lines and their army had some of the best French-made guns of the time, their artillery was static and lacked mobility against the fast-moving Afghan forces. The heavy mounted artillery of Afghans proved much better in the battlefield than the light artillery of Marathas. However, the main reason for the failure of the Marathas was that they went to war without good allies. They were expecting support from their allies- Rajputs, Jats and Sikhs, but none of them supported Marathas in the battle. The Marathas had interfered in the internal affairs of the Rajput states (present-day Rajasthan) and levied heavy taxes and huge fines on them. They had also made large territorial and monetary claims upon Awadh. Their raids in the Jat territory had resulted in the loss of trust of Jat chiefs like Suraj Mal. They had, therefore, to fight their enemies alone. The Marathas’ difficulty in obtaining supplies worsened as the local population became hostile to them, since
    in the Marathas’ desperation to secure provisions they had pillaged the surrounding areas. The Marathas were unwise to carry a large number of non-combatants including wives along with them. This proved a severe handicap as it not only slowed down the movement of the army but also put extra burden on the
    supplies. A large part of the fighting strength had to be diverted to protecting the camp. They were forced to battle as the Marathas could take the starvation no more. It was this army weakened by starvation that fought the decisive battle of Panipat.

    128. Which day was declared as the ‘Direct Action Day’ by the Muslim League ?

    (1) 3rd September, 1946
    (2) 16th August, 1946
    (3) 16th May, 1946
    (4) 4th December, 1946
    128. (2) Direct Action Day also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter in the city of Calcutta which took place on August 16, 1946. The 1946 Cabinet Mission to India for planning of the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership proposed an initial plan of composition of the new Dominion of India and its government. However, soon an alternative plan to divide the British Raj into a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan was proposed by the Muslim League. The Congress rejected the alternative proposal outright. Muslim League planned general strike (hartal) on 16 August terming it as Direct Action Day to protest this rejection, and to assert its demand for a separate Muslim homeland. The day also marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives. An important incident following Direct Action Day was the Noakhali and Tippera district massacres in October 1946.

    129. When was Mahatma Gandhi arrested during the ‘Quit India Movement’ of 1942 ?

    (1) 7th August 1942
    (2) 30th April 1942
    (3) 9th August 1942
    (4) 5th July 1942
    129. (3) The Quit India Movement, or the August Movement (August Kranti) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi’s call for immediate independence. The All-India Congress Committee proclaimed a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called “an orderly British withdrawal” from India. The call for determined, but passive resistance appears in his call to Do or Die, issued on 8 August at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay. The British were quick to act. Almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership, and not just at the national level, was imprisoned early morning next day i.e August 9. Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on August 9 and hoisted the flag; later the Congress party was banned.

    130. Gandhiji believed that

    (1) End justifies means
    (2) Means justify end
    (3) Neither end justifies means nor means justify end
    (4) End and Means both should be justified
    130. (2) Gandhi’s view of the morally legitimate means to be exclusively employed in furthering political ends was deeply affected by the doctrine of dispassionate action in the Gita. Gandhi explicitly rejected the doctrine that the end justifies the means, and went so far as to assert that a moral means is almost an end in itself because virtue is its own reward. Gandhi firmly believed that the means always justify the end. So he chose only good means to drive away the British from India. He firmly believed that “impure” means result in an “impure” end, that we cannot attain to any truth through untruthful means that we cannot secure justice through unjust means, or freedom through tyrannical acts, or socialism through enmity and coercion, or enduring peace through war.

    131. With which ‘Movement’, the following were/are associated?

    a. Vinoba Bhave
    b. Medha Patkar
    c. Sunderlal Bahuguna
    d. Jaya Prakash Narayan
    1. ‘Chipko’
    2. ‘Sampurna Kranti’
    3. ‘Narmada Bachao’
    4. ‘Bhoodan’
    (1) a – 4, c – 1, b – 2, d – 3
    (2) a – 4, b – 3, c – 1, d – 2
    (3) b – 3, c – 1, a – 2, d – 4
    (4) d – 2, a – 4, b – 1, c – 2
    131. (2) Sunderlal Bahuguna is a noted Garhwali environmentalist, Chipko movement leader and a follower of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of Non-violence and Satyagraha. The Bhoodan Movement was a voluntary land reform movement in India started by Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1951 started at Pochampally village. Narmada is social movement consisting of tribal people, adivasis, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada River, Gujarat, India. Narmada Bachao Andolan, together with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, were the 1991 recipient of the Right Livelihood Award. Jayaprakash Narayan is remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful Total Revolution.

    132. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?

    (1) Lord Dalhousie – Doctrine of Lapse
    (2) Lord Minto – Indian Councils Act, 1909
    (3) Lord Wellesley – Subsidiary Alliance
    (4) Lord Curzon – Vernacular Press Act, 1878
    132. (4) The Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 under the Governor Generalship and Viceroyalty of Lord Lytton, for ‘better control” of Indian language newspapers. The purpose of the Act was to control the printing and circulation of seditious material, calculated to produce disaffection, which was already resent, against the British Government in India in the minds of the masses.

    133. The province of Bengal was partitioned into two parts in 1905 by

    (1) Lord Lytton 
    (2) Lord Ripon
    (3) Lord Dufferin
    (4) Lord Curzon
    133. (4) The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took effect in October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. Indians were outraged at what they recognised as a “divide and rule” policy, where the colonizers turned the native population against itself in order to rule, even though Curzon stressed it would produce administrative efficiency. The partition animated the Hindus and led the Muslims to form their own national organization. Bengal was reunited in 1911.

    134. The Indian Councils Act of 1909 is also known as

    (1) The Montagu Declaration
    (2) The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
    (3) The Morley-Minto Reforms
    (4) The Rowlatt Act
    134. (3) Government of India Act of 1909 is also known as Morley- Minto Reforms. After Lord Curzon‘s partitioning of Bengal, terrorism invoked in the land of Bengal and it was an absolute necessity to restore stability of the British Raj. So in order to crack down the terrorist act in Bengal, John Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State for India and The Earl of Minto, the Conservative Governor General of India, together came to a common opinion that a dramatic step was required. This Act also gave security to the loyal followers of Indian upper classes and upcoming westernized section of the population.

    135. The Home Rule League was started by

    (1) M.K. Gandhi 
    (2) B.G. Tilak
    (3) Ranade 
    (4) K.T. Telang
    135. (2) The All India Home Rule League was a national political organization founded in 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule, and to obtain the status of a Dominion within the British Empire. Between 1916 and 1918, when the war was closing, prominent Indians like Joseph Baptista, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, G. S. Khaparde, Sir S. Subramania Iyer and the leader of the Theosophical Society, Annie Besant decided to organize a national alliance of leagues across India, specifically to demand Home Rule, or self-government within the British Empire for all of India. Tilak founded the first League in the city of Pune, Maharashtra. 

    136. The Simon Commission was boycotted by Indians because

    (1) it sought to curb civil liberties of the Indians
    (2) it proposed to partition India
    (3) it was an all-white commission without Indian representation
    (4) it proposed measures to contain nationalism
    136. (3) In November 1927, the British government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, known popularly after the name of its chairman as the Simon Commission, to go into the question of further constitutional reform. All the members of the Commission were Englishmen. This announcement was greeted by a chorus of protest from all Indians. What angered them most was the exclusion of Indians from the Commission and the basic notion behind this exclusion that foreigners would discuss and decide upon India’s fitness for self-government.

    137. The founder of the ‘Brahmo Samaj’ was

    (1) Swami Dayananda Saraswati
    (2) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (3) Raja Ram Mohun Roy
    (4) Swami Vivekananda
    137. (3) Brahmo Samaj was conceived at Kolkata in 1830 by Devendranath Tagore and Ram Mohan Roy as reformation of the prevailing Brahmanism of the time (specifically Kulin practices) and began the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th century pioneering all religious, social and educational advance of the Hindu community in the 19th century. n practice, a Brahmo Samaj is an assembly of all sorts and descriptions of people without distinction, meeting publicly for the sober, orderly, religious and devout adoration of “the (nameless) unsearchable Eternal, Immutable Being who is the Author and Preserver of the Universe.

    138. The correct chronological order in which the British established their trading centre in the places mentioned below is

    (1) Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Surat
    (2) Bombay, Madras, Surat, Calcutta
    (3) Surat, Madras, Bombay, Calcutta
    (4) Surat, Madras,Calcutta, Bombay
    138. (3) 1613-14: British East India Company set up trading post at Surat; 1639: The local king of Madras granted the Company a lease; 1662: King Charles II of England was given Bombay as dowry after marrying the Portuguese princess; and, 1667: The English obtained the royal farman to trade in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The three small villages in the east of India called Sutanati, Gobindapore and Kalikata were renamed Calcutta in 1690.

    139. The Revolt of 1857 was started by

    (1) the Sepoys
    (2) the Zamindars
    (3) the Peasants
    (4) the Plantation Workers
    139. (1) The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company’s army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.

    140. After leaving the Congress, Subhash Chandra Bose formed, in 1939, his own party, named

    (1) Socialist Bloc
    (2) Revolutionary Socialist Bloc
    (3) Forward Bloc
    (4) Socialist-Congress Bloc
    140. (3) The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India which emerged as a faction within the Indian National Congress in 1939, led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The Forward Bloc of the Indian National Congress was formed on 3 May 1939 by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, who had resigned from the presidency of the Indian National Congress on April 29 after being outmaneuvered by Mohandas K. Gandhi.

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