History GK Quiz-31

History GK Quiz-31

History Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on History for competitive examinations.

    181. Who was the first Muslim President of the Indian National Congress ?

    (1) Muhammed Ali Jinnah
    (2) Badruddin Tyabji
    (3) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
    (4) Abul Kalam Azad
    181. (2) Badruddin Tyabji was a Indian lawyer who served as the third President of the Indian National Congress. In 1902, he became the first Indian to hold the post of Chief Justice in Mumbai. He is considered to be one of the most moderate Muslims during the freedom movement of India.

    182. The administrative consequence of the Revolt of 1857 was transfer of power from

    (1) East India Company to the British Crown
    (2) British Crown to the East India Company
    (3) East India Company to the Governor General
    (4) British Crown to the Board of Directors
    182. (1) The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858. It also led the British to reorganize the army, the financial system and the administration in India. In August, by the Government
    of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown. A new British government department, the India Office, was created to handle the governance of India, and its head, the Secretary of State for India, was entrusted with formulating Indian policy. The Governor-General of India gained a new title (Viceroy of India), and implemented the policies devised by the India Office.

    183. The issue on which the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 was launched was

    (1) equal employment opportunities for Indians
    (2) the proposed execution of Bhagat Singh
    (3) salt monopoly exercised by the British Government
    (4) complete freedom
    183. (3) On the historic day of 12th March 1930, Gandhi inaugurated The Civil Disobedience Movement by conducting the historic Dandi Salt March, where he broke the Salt Laws imposed by the British Government.

    184. Who was the last Governor-General of India ?

    (1) Sir Cripps
    (2) Lord Mountbatten
    (3) C. Rajagopalachari
    (4) Sir Attlee
    184. (3) C. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India from 1948 to 1950. Later he was Union Home Minister from 1951 to 1952 and as Chief Minister of Madras state from 1952 to 1954. In 1959, he resigned from the Indian National Congress and founded the Swatantra Party, which stood against the Congress in the 1962, 1967 and 1972 elections. Rajaji was instrumental in setting up a united Anti-Congress front in Madras state under C. N. Annadurai, which swept the 1967 elections.

    185. Which Directive Principle bears the direct impact of Gandhi’s moral philosophy ?

    (1) Equal pay for equal work
    (2) Provision of free legal aid and advice
    (3) Prohibition of the slaughter of cows
    (4) Protection of the monuments of historical importance
    185. (3) Two Directive Principles of State Policy which are based on the Gandhian ideals are: (i) promotion of cottage industries on an individual and co-operative basis in rural areas; and (ii) prevention of slaughter of cows and calves and other milch cattle.

    186. Who represented India in the Second Round Table Conference?

    (1) Sarojani Nadu
    (2) Anne Besaint
    (3) Aruna Asaf Ali
    (4) None of these
    186. (1) On August 29, 1931, Gandhi sailed for England in the SS Rajputana to attend the Second Round Table Conference, He went as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. He was accompanied by Sarojini Naidu and also Madan Mohan Malaviya, Ghanshyam Das Birla, Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Mirza Ismail Diwan of Mysore, S.K. Dutta and Sir Syed Ali Imam. The conference failed to reach agreement, either constitutionally or on communal representation.

    187. Who declared as his ultimate aim the wiping of every tear from every eye?

    (1) Jawaharlal Nehru
    (2) Gandhiji
    (3) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
    (4) Sardar Patel
    187. (2) Gandhiji had said that his mission in life was “to wipe every tear from every eye.”

    188. In ends and means relationship, Gandhiji believed

    (1) Means become good if they serve the end
    (2) Means and ends are watertight compartments
    (3) Means determine the end
    (4) End is everything, no matter what or how the means are
    188. (3) The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable. The means used to obtain an end are wrapped up in and attached to that end. Therefore, it is contradictory to try to use unjust means to obtain justice or to try to use violence to obtain peace. As Gandhi wrote: “They say, ‘means are, after all, means’. I would say, ‘means are, after all, everything’. As the means so the end’. Gandhi rejected the idea that injustice should, or even could, be fought against “by any means necessary” — if you use violent, coercive, unjust means, whatever ends you produce will necessarily embed that injustice.

    189. The First Victory & Governor General of British India was

    (1) Lord Dalhousie
    (2) Sir John Lawrence
    (3) Warren Hastings
    (4) Lord Canning
    189. (4) Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India. The title of Viceroy was created in 1858 after the mutiny of 1857. Before 1858, East India Company was ruling large parts of India and the head of  dministration of the East India Company was called Governor General. This office was created in 1773. The title Governor General had administrative control over the British Provinces of India (Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces etc.). After the mutiny of 1857, the British Government took control of the administration from East India Company. To reflect the Governor General’s role as representative from the monarch, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him. The title remained in existence from 1858 till 1947. Lord Caning was Governor General of India from 1856 to 1858 and Viceroy of India from 1858 to 1862.

    190. The split between the ‘Extremists’ and ‘Moderates’ came up in the open at the Surat Congress Session in the year

    (1) 1905 
    (2) 1906
    (3) 1907 
    4) 1910
    190. (3) At the Surat Session in 1907, congress leaders split into two groups - moderates and extremists. In Surat, Extremists tried to push the candidature of Lala Lajpat Rai for President-ship of congress and
    Moderates Dr. Ras Behari Ghosh to be the President. The situation was saved by Lala Lajpat Rai and stepping down and Dr. Ras Behari Ghosh became the President. Real trouble started when the moderates tried to repudiate the resolution on boycott, swadeshi and national education which has been adopted in 1906. This was not acceptable to the extremists. As a result open clashes took place and session was suspended thereafter Moderates held a separate convention from which the extremists were excluded this marked a complete split in the Congress.

    191. Bhulabhai Desai’s most memorable achievement was his defence of the Indian National Army (I.N.A.) personnel at the Red Fort Trial towards the end of

    (1) 1943 
    (2) 1944
    (3) 1945 
    (4) 1946
    191. (3) When three captured Indian National Army (INA) officers, Shahnawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sahgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial for treason, the Congress formed a Defence committee composed of 17 advocates including Bhulabhai Desai. The courtmartial hearing began in October 1945 at the Red Fort. Bhulabhai was the leading counsel for the defense. Undeterred by poor health, Bhulabhai made an emphatic and passionate argument in defense of the charged soldiers.

    192. The First Viceroy of the Portuguese in the East was

    (1) Albuquerque
    (2) Joa de Castro
    (3) Francisco de Almedia
    (4) Nuno da Cunha
    192. (3) The Portuguese State of India was established in 1505 as a viceroyalty of the Kingdom of Portugal, six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and India, to serve as the plenipotentiary governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy was Francisco de Almeida, who established his headquarters in Cochin. Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of vice-roy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa.

    193. When was the All India Women’s Conference founded

    (1) 1924 
    (2) 1925
    (3) 1926 
    (4) 1927
    193. (4) All India Women’s Conference was founded in 1927 “as an organization dedicated to upliftment and betterment of women and children”. AIWC was registered in 1930 under the Societies Registration Act, XXI of 1860. Its founder members were Maharani Chimnabai Gaekwad; Rani Sahiba of Sangli; Sarojini Naidu; Kamla Devi Chattopadhyaya; Lady Dorab Tata, etc. It first met at the Ferguson College, Pune on January 3, 1927. Some of the legislative reforms initiated by the AIWC include: Sharda Act (1929); Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act (1937); Factory Act (1947); Hindu Marriage and Divorce Act (1954); Special Marriage Act (1954); Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act (1956); Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act (1956); The Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women Act (1958); Maternity Benefits Act (1961); Dowry Prohibition Act (1961); Equal Remuneration Act (1958, 1976), etc.

    194. The Kuka movement started in mid-Nineteenth century in

    (1) Western Punjab
    (2) Maharashtra
    (3) Bengal
    (4) Madhya Bharat
    194. (1) The Namdhari or Kuka movement had its origin in the north-west corner of the Sikh kingdom. The main difference between Namdhari Sikhs and mainstream Sikhs is their belief in Jagjit Singh as their living Guru (as opposed to the Guru Granth Sahib, the present Guru of Sikhs). Other differences include being: strict vegetarians; placing equal importance between the Guru Granth Sahib and the Dasam Granth, the holy book written by the 10th Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. Ram Singh Kuka was the founder of the Kuka movement. He was strongly opposed to the British rule and started an intense non-cooperation movement against them. Led by him, the people boycotted English education, mill made cloths and other imported goods.

    195. Mahatma Gandhi’s remark, “A post-dated cheque on a crumbling bank” is regarding the proposals of

    (1) Simon Commission
    (2) Cripps Mission
    (3) Cabinet Mission
    (4) Wavel Plan
    195. (2) Early in 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the War Cabinet of Winston Churchill, was sent to make a definite offer to India on behalf of the British Government. The proposals gave a severe blow to Indian unity as the provinces could not opt to join the federation and this tantamounted to the acceptance of Pakistan in principle. Secondly, it was felt that the interests of the people of the Indian states were ignored as the Indian States would be represented by the representatives nominated by their rulers. No limit was set for the actual grant of Dominion Status. Since the very foundation of the British Empire seemed to be uncertain at that moment of World War, the longterm offer of Dominion Status was, as Gandhiji remarked, a ‘post-dated cheque on a failing bank.’

    196. Under whose leadership was the Congress Socialist Party founded in 1934 ?

    (1) Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi
    (2) Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan
    (3) Subhas Chandra Bose and P.C, Joshi
    (4) Saifuddin Kitchlew and Rajendra Prasad
    196. (2) The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was founded in 1934 as a socialist caucus within the Indian National Congress. Its members rejected what they saw as the anti-rational mysticism of Mohandas Gandhi as well as the sectarian attitude of the Communist Party of India towards the Congress Party. Influenced by Fabianism as well as Marxism-Leninism, the CSP included advocates of armed struggle or sabotage (such as Jai Prakash Narayan and Basawon Singh (Sinha) as well as those who insisted upon ahimsa or nonviolent resistance (such as Acharya Narendra Deva).

    197. Which one of the following is incorrectly matched ?

    (1) Columbus – 1492
    (2) Vasco de Gama – 1498
    (3) Magellan – 1520
    (4) Balboa – 1530
    197. (4) Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World. He traveled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa Maria la Antigua del Darién in present-day Panama in 1510, which was the first permanent European settlement on the mainland of the Americas.

    198. When did the British make English the medium of instruction in India ?

    (1) 1813 
    (2) 1833
    (3) 1835 
    (4) 1844
    198. (3) Lord William Bentinck introduced western or English education in India in 1835. Macaulay’s Minute formed the basis for the reforms introduced in the English Education Act of 1835. Macaulay famously stated in his “Minute on Indian Education” (1835): “all the historical information which has been collected from all the books written in Sanskrit language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgments used at preparatory schools in England. 

    199. During whose Veceroyship did the High Courts come into existence at the three presidential cities of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay ?

    (1) Warren Hastings
    (2) Lord Cornwallis
    (3) John Lawrence
    (4) Lord Dalhousie
    199. (3) It was during the period of Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869) that the three High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865. The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857 during the period of Lord Canning (1856 – 1862).

    200. Who was popularly known as ‘Nana Saheb” ?

    (1) Baji Rai I
    (2) Balaji Baji Rao
    (3) Balaji Vishwanath
    (4) Madhav Rao
    200. (2) Nanasaheb Peshwa, also known as Balaji Baji Rao, was the son of Bajirao from his marriage with Kashibai and one of the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. He contributed heavily to the development of the city of Pune, India. He was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahu himself. Nanasaheb lost his cousin, Sadashivrao Bhau (the son of Chimaji Appa), and his eldest son, Vishwasrao, at the [Third Battle of Panipat].

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