History GK Quiz-5

History GK Quiz-5

History Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on History for competitive examinations.

    41. Where has the world’s largest monolithic statue of Buddha been installed ?

    (1) Bamiyan 
    (2) Hyderabad
    (3) Kandy 
    (4) Lhasa
    Answer:
    41. (1) The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th century monumental statues of standing buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan. They were dynamited and destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban, on orders from leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, after the Taliban government declared that they were idols. On 8 September 2008 archeologists searching for a legendary 300-metre statue at the site of the already dynamited Buddhas announced the discovery of an unknown 19-metre (62-foot) reclining Buddha, a pose representing Buddha’s passage into nirvana.


    42. The Harappan Civilisation was discovered in the year :

    (1) 1935 
    (2) 1942
    (3) 1901 
    (4) 1922
    Answer:
    42. (4) In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.


    43. The title ‘Indian Napolean’ has been attached to

    (1) Chandra Gupta Maurya
    (2) Samudragupta
    (3) Chandragupta-I
    (4) Harshavardhana
    Answer:
    43. (2) Samudragupta (335-375 AD) of the Gupta dynasty is known as the Napoleon of India. Historian A V Smith called him so because of his great military conquests known from the ‘Prayag Prashati’ written by his courtier and poet Harisena, who also describes him as the hero of a hundred battles. But some leading Indian historians criticise Smith and feel that Samudragupta was a far greater warrior than Napoleon, as the former never lost any battle.

    44. The ‘Ajivikas’ were a

    (1) sect contemporary to the Buddha
    (2) breakaway branch of the Buddhists
    (3) sect founded by Charvaka
    (4) sect founded by Shankaracharya
    Answer:
    44. (1) Ajivika (“living” in Sanskrit) was a system of ancient Indian philosophy and an ascetic movement of the Mahajanapada period in the Indian subcontinent. Ajivika was primarily a heterodox Hindu (Nastika) or atheistic system. The Ajivikas may simply have been a more loosely-organized group of wandering ascetics (shramanas or sannyasins). One of their prominent leaders was Makkhali Gosal. Ajivikas are is thought to be contemporaneous to other early Hindu nastika philosophical schools of thought, such as Charvaka, Jainism and Buddhism, and may have preceded the latter two systems.


    45. The organic relationship between the ancient culture of the indus Valley and Hinduism of today is proved by the worship of

    (1) Pashupati, Indra and the Mother Goddess
    (2) Stones, trees and animals
    (3) Vishnu and Lakshmi
    (4) Siva and Sakti
    Answer:
    45. (2) There has been evidence that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization believed in some form of animal and nature worship. The figure of deities on the seals indicates that they worshipped gods and goddesses in the human form. No major sculpture survives but for a bust thought to be of a major priest
    and the stunning bronze dancing girl. The Divine Mother appears to have been an important goddess,
    due to the countless terra-cotta statues of her that were found. It follows a school of thought that would
    become prevalent later as well, of the female energy being regarded as the source of all creation. What is most interesting is the existence of a male god which has been identified as a proto-type of an important God of the religion of Hinduism, lord Shiv. The fact that the same God is still worshipped today, and has been for the last five thousand years is one of the remarkable features of Indian culture. Even evidence of the Bhakti cult (loving devotion to a personal God) has been found at Indus Valley Civilization sites, and the Bhakti cult also has a large following even today. It can therefore be concluded that there is a close relationship between the beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization and that of modern Hinduism.


    46. How was Burma (now Myanmar) known to ancient Indians ?

    (1) Malayamandalam
    (2) Yavadwipa
    (3) Suvarnabhumi
    (4) Suvarnadwipa
    Answer:
    46. (3) Suvarnabhumi is a Sanskrit term meaning the “Golden Land” or “Land of Gold”, coined by the ancient Indians which refers broadly to Southeast Asian region across Gulf of Bengal and Eastern Indian Ocean; Lower Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Although it seems to cover vast region in Southeast Asia, it is generally accepted that the name Suvarnabhumi was first used to refer more specifically to Lower Burma. Another term which was used by the ancient Indians is Suvarnadvipa which means the “Golden Peninsula/Island”. Suvarnabhumi may have been used primarily as a vague general designation of an extensive region in Southeast Asia, but, over time, different parts of it came to be designated by the additional epithets of island, peninsula or city.


    47. With whom is ‘Junagarh Rock Inscription’ associated ?

    (1) Rudradaman
    (2) Bimbisara
    (3) Chandragupta II
    (4) Gautamiputra Satakarni
    Answer:
    47. (1) The Junagadh rock inscription, found in Junagadh, was carved under the orders of King Rudradaman, who had obtained the title of Mahakshatrapa. He was the grandson of the famous Mahakshatrapa Chastana and was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapa dynasty. The inscription is a chronicle about the rebuilding of a dam named Urjayat around the lake Sudarshana. The dam lay in the region of Saurashtra and the closest town appears to have been a place called Girinagar. It was fed by the rivers Suvarnasikata and Palasini, along with other smaller streams. The dam was originally built by Vaishya Pushyagupta who was the governor of the region under Chandragupta Maurya. Conduits from the dam were later built under orders of his grandson; Emperor Asoka.


    48. Nalanda University was a great centre of learning, especially in

    (1) Buddhism 
    (2) Jainism
    (3) Vaishnavism 
    (4) Tantra
    Answer:
    48. (1) Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta-I or Kumara Gupta-II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire.


    49. The Rathas of Mahabalipuram was built during the reign of the

    (1) Palas 
    (2) Cholas
    (3) Rashtrakutas 
    (4) Pallavas
    Answer:
    49. (4) The city of Mahabalipuram was largely developed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I in the 7th century AD. The mandapa or pavilions and the rathas or shrines shaped as temple chariots are hewn from the granite rock face, while the famed Shore Temple, erected half a century later, is built from dressed stone. The Pancha Rathas shrines were carved during the reign of King Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I. The purpose of their construction is not known, structures are not completed.


    50. Who is hailed as the “God of Medicine” by the practitioners of Ayurveda ?

    (1) Susruta 
    (2) Chyavana
    (3) Dhanwantari 
    (4) Charaka
    Answer:
    50. (3) Dhanvantri is an Avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods (devas), and the god of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantri seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others. Dhanvantri is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding medical herbs in one hand and a pot containing rejuvenating nectar called amrita in another. The Puranas state that Dhanvantri emerged from the ‘Ocean of Milk’ and appeared with the pot of nectar during the story of the Samudra or Sagar manthan whilst the ocean was being churned by the devas and asuras, using the Mandara mountain and the serpent Vasuki.


    51. Which was the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard?

    (1) Lothal 
    (2) Kalibangan
    (3) Harappa 
    (4) Mohenjo Daro
    Answer:
    51. (1) Lothal was one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat and dating from 2400 BCE, it was discovered in 1954. Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Lothal’s dock—the world’s earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea.It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa.

    52. Which dynasty succeeded the Chalukyas in the Western India?

    (1) Cholas 
    (2) Kakatiyas
    (3) Pallavas 
    (4) Rashtrakutas
    Answer:
    52. (4) The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. The earliest dynasty, known as the “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesin II. After the death of Pulakesin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century.


    53. Upto where did Chandragupta Maurya’s empire extend in the north-west ?

    (1) Ravi river
    (2) Indus river
    (3) Satluj river
    (4) Hindukush range
    Answer:
    53. (2) Prior to Chandragupta’s consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated the northwestern subcontinent, while the Nanda Dynasty dominated the middle and lower basin of the Ganges. After Chandragupta’s conquests, the Maurya Empire extended from Bengal and Assam in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan, some part of the eastern and southeast Iran in the west, to Kashmir and Nepal in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south. The vast empire extended from the Bay of Bengal in the east, to the Indus River in the west.


    54. Prince Ellara conquered Sri Lanka in the second century BC. With which of the following dynasties of Dravida ruler was he associated ?

    (1) Chera 
    (2) Chola
    (3) Pandya 
    (4) Pallava
    Answer:
    54. (2) Elara (235 BC – 161 BC), also known as Manu Needhi Cholan was a Chola king from the Chola Kingdom, in present day South India, who ruled Sri Lanka from 205 BC to 161 BC from the ancient capital of Anuradhapura. Often referred to as ‘the Just King’. The Tamil name Elalan means, ‘the one who rules the Ellai (boundary). Elara is a peculiar figure in the history of Sri Lanka and one with particular resonance given the ongoing ethnic strife in the country. Although he was an invader, he is often regarded as one of Sri Lanka’s wisest and most just monarchs, as highlighted in the ancient Sinhalese chronicle Mahavamsa.


    55. Harshavardhana organised his religious assembly at

    (1) Mathura 
    (2) Prayag
    (3) Varanasi 
    (4) Tamralipt
    Answer:
    55. (2) After the Kannauj Assembly was concluded, Hiuen-Tsang was making preparations to go to his home, but Harsha invited him to attend another Assembly at Prayag which he used to hold after ever five years on the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. Five such assemblies had already taken place and this was the sixth Assembly in which Hiuen-Tsang was invited. This ceremony was attended by the kings of eighteen kingdoms and about 5, 00,000 people including Sramanas. Hercetics, Nigranthas, the poor, the orphans etc, attended this assembly. The Prayag Assembly is a glorious example of the generosity of Harshavardhana as he gave all his personal wealth and belongings in charity during the assembly.


    56. Which of the following domesticated animals was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilisation ?

    (1) Buffalo 
    (2) Sheep
    (3) Cow 
    (4) Pig
    Answer:
    56. (3) The Indus Valley Civilization made sculptures mainly in stone, metal and terra-cotta. Ranging in size from slightly larger than a human thumb to almost 30 cm. (one foot) in height, the anthropomorphic and animal terracotta figurines from Harappa and other Indus Civilization sites offer a rich reflection of some of the Harappan ideas about representing life in the Bronze Age. From the terracotta figurines, we come to know that the people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was considered a great asset in the farming community.


    57. Which among the following is the sacred book of the Buddhists ?

    (1) Upanishad 
    (2) Vedas
    (3) Tripitaka 
    (4) Jatakas
    Answer:
    57. (3) Tripitaka is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of
    scriptures. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka traditionally contains three “baskets” of teachings: a Sutra
    Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Sutta Pitaka), a Vinaya Pitaka (Sanskrit & Pali) and an Abhidharma Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Abhidhamma Pitaka).


    58. The greatest development in the Kushana period was in the field of

    (1) religion 
    (2) art
    (3) literature 
    (4) architecture
    Answer:
    58. (2) The Kushanas were great patrons of art. It was under the rule of the Kushans that principles were formed for making sculptural images, which continued to influence making of sculptures ever after. During this time, Buddha was first shown in human form (earlier he was represented by symbols like lotus and footsteps). Other Hindu and Jain deities also began to be shown in human form. Mathura and Gandhara were the two main centers of art during the time of the Kushanas. The Gandhara School of Art and the Mathura School of Art developed their own distinct styles. The Gandhara School was highly influenced by Greco-Roman philosophies and mainly concentrated on depicting the image of the Buddha and the legends associated with his life, while the Mathura School drew inspiration from local folk deities and themes from day to day life.


    59. Who was the first known Gupta ruler ?

    (1) Sri Gupta
    (2) Chandragupta I
    (3) Ghatotkacha
    (4) Kumaragupta I
    Answer:
    59. (1) Sri Gupta (240–280) was a pre-imperial Gupta king in northern India and start of the Gupta dynasty. The first evidence of Sri Gupta comes from the writings of I-tsing around 690 CE who describes that the Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandra Gupta, describes “Maharaja Sri-Gupta” as the founder of the Gupta dynasty.


    60. Which was the only Indus city without a citadel ?

    (1) Kalibangan 
    (2) Harappa
    (3) Mohenjodaro 
    (4) Chanhudaro
    Answer:
    60. (4) Excavations at Chanhudaro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, the Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture. The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories. These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. It was the only Harappan city without a citadel.

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