History GK Quiz-74

History GK Quiz-74

History Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on History for competitive examinations.

    1. The chief advocate of Fascism was :

    (1) Mussolini 
    (2) Adolf Hitler
    (3) St. Simon 
    (4) Robert Owen
    Answer:
    1. (1) Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party, ruling the country from 1922 to his ousting in 1943, and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of fascism, a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Originally a member of the Italian Socialist Party and editor of the Avanti! from 1912 to 1914, Mussolini fought in World War I as an ardent nationalist and created the Fasci di Combattimento in 1919, catalyzing his nationalist and socialist beliefs in the Fascist Manifesto, published in 1921.

    2. Whose teachings inspired the French Revolution?

    (1) Locke 
    (2) Rousseau
    (3) Hegel 
    4) Plato
    Answer:
    2. (2) Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century
    Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well
    as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought. During the period
    of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophers among members of the
    Jacobin Club. Rousseau, a Freemason, was interred as a national hero in the Pantheon in Paris, in 1794,
    16 years after his death.

    3. Which two countries were involved in a Hundred Years War ?

    (1) Turkey and Austria
    (2) England and France
    (3) Palestine and Israel
    (4) Germany and Russia
    Answer:
    3. (2) The Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne. It was the result of a dynastic disagreement dating back to William the Conqueror who became King of England in 1066, while remaining Duke of Normandy. The war owes its historical significance to a number of factors. Although primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of both French and English nationalism. Militarily, it saw the introduction of new weapons and tactics which eroded the older system of feudal armies dominated by heavy cavalry in Western Europe.

    4. Waterloo is located in

    (1) England 
    (2) France
    (3) Spain 
    (4) Belgium
    Answer:
    4. (4) The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by the armies of the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blucher. It was the culminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon’s last.

    5. Who is known as the “Lady with the Lamp” ?

    (1) Joan of Arc
    (2) Helen Keller
    (3) Florence Nightingale
    (4) Sarojini Naidu
    Answer:
    5. (3) Florence Nightingale was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed “The Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night. Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas’ Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world.

    6. ‘Anti Semitism’ to Adolf Hitler meant

    (1) Anti Black policy
    (2) Anti Jewish policy
    (3) Anti Protestant policy
    (4) Anti German policy
    Answer:
    6. (2) Anti-Semitism is suspicion of, hatred toward, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage. Social scientists consider it a form of racism. Anti-Semitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews to organized violent attacks by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Extreme instances of persecution include the pogroms which preceded the First Crusade in 1096, the expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, Cossack massacres in Ukraine, various pogroms in Russia, the Dreyfus affair, the Final Solution by Hitler’s Germany, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies and the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.

    7. In Greek mythology, Apollo is the god of what ?

    (1) Prophecy 
    (2) Medicine
    (3) Love 
    (4) Peace
    Answer:
    7. (1) Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman religion, Greek and Roman mythology, and Greco– Roman Neo-paganism. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. As the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god— the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague.

    8. Who is the Duchess of Cornwall ?

    (1) Diana 
    (2) Camilla
    (3) Anne 
    (4) Margaret
    Answer:
    8. (2) Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall GCVO is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, and member of the British Royal Family. By her second marriage she shares her husband’s titles as Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Baroness of Renfrew. Although she is the Princess of Wales because of her marriage to the Prince of Wales, she prefers to be known by the secondary title of Duchess of Cornwall (Duchess of Rothesay in Scotland) out of respect for her husband’s first wife, the late Diana, Princess of Wales.

    9. The ideology of fascism developed in

    (1) Germany 
    (2) Japan
    (3) Italy 
    (4) Russia
    Answer:
    9. (3) Fascism was founded during World War I by Italian national syndicalists who combined left-wing and rightwing political views. Fascists have commonly opposed having a firm association with any section of the leftright spectrum, considering it inadequate to describe their beliefs, though fascism’s goal to promote the rule of people deemed innately superior while seeking to purge society of people deemed innately inferior is identified as a prominent far-right theme. Fascism opposes multiple ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and two major forms of socialism — communism and social democracy.

    10. Who among the following is referred to as ‘Desert Fox’ ?

    (1) Lord Wavell
    (2) Gen. Eisenhover
    (3) Gen. Rommel
    (4) Gen. McArthur
    Answer:
    10. (3) Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel, popularly known as the Desert Fox, was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops, and the enemies he fought. He was a highly decorated officer in World War I, and was awarded the Pour le Merite for his exploits on the Italian front. In World War II, he further distinguished himself as the commander of the 7th Panzer Division during the 1940 invasion of France. However, it was his leadership of German and Italian forces in the North African campaign that established the legend of the Desert Fox. He is considered to have been one of the most skilled commanders of desert warfare in the conflict.

    11. Which of the following group of thinkers influenced Fascism ?

    (1) Plato, Machiavelli and Herbet Spencer
    (2) Aristotle, St. Augustine and T.H. Green
    (3) Kant, Fichte, Hegel and Rosenberg
    (4) Karl Marx, Engels and Lenin
    Answer:
    11. (1) Early influences that shaped the ideology of fascism have been dated back to ancient Greece. In The Republic, Plato emphasized the need for absolute and unlimited authority of a philosopher king in an ideal state. There were a number of influences on fascism from the Renaissance era in Europe. Niccolo Machiavelli is known to have influenced Italian Fascism, particularly his promotion of the absolute authority of the state. Machiavelli rejected all existing traditional and metaphysical assumptions of the time— especially those associated with the Middle Ages, and asserted as an Italian patriot that Italy needed a strong and all-powerful state led by a vigorous and ruthless leader who would conquer and unify Italy. Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. He was “an enthusiastic exponent of evolution” and even “wrote about evolution before Darwin did.

    12. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the code given below the Lists :

    List-I (Names)
    a. Hobbes
    b. Rousseau
    c. Locke
    d. Hitler
    List-II (Events)
    1. French Revolution
    2. Glorious Revolution
    3. Execution of Charles I
    4. Second World War
    Code :
    (1) a b c d
    2 3 1 4
    (2) a b c d
    3 1 2 4
    (3) a b c d
    1 4 2 3
    (4) a b c d
    1 2 4 3
    Answer:
    12. (2) Leviathan (1651) was the most celebrated work of Hobbes which was finished in 1651, after the
    execution of Charles I, and was printed in London. Hobbes presented Charles II, who was in exile in
    Paris, with a specially bund copy. Rousseau’s political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought. John Locke
    widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded
    as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. Locke wrote the Two Treatises of Government to defend the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Adolf Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He was at the centre of the founding of Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust.

    13. The United Kingdom is a classic example of a/an

    (1) aristocracy
    (2) absolute monarchy
    (3) constitutional monarchy
    (4) polity
    Answer:
    13. (3) Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution. Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which the monarch may have strictly
    ceremonial duties or may have reserve powers, depending on the constitution. Under most modern
    constitutional monarchies there is also a prime minister who is the head of government and exercises effective political power. In Britain, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 led to a constitutional monarchy restricted by laws such as the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, although limits on the power of the monarch are older than that.

    14. With the fall of which among the following, the French Revolution began ?

    (1) Bastille 
    (2) Communes
    (3) Jacobin Club 
    (4) Pillnitz
    Answer:
    14. (1) The storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution. The storming of the Bastille and the subsequent Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was the third event of this opening stage of the revolution. The first had been the revolt of the nobility, refusing to aid King Louis XVI through the payment of taxes. The second had been the formation of the National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath.

    15. The island of Corsica is associated with

    (1) Mussolini
    (2) Hitler
    (3) Napolean Bonaparte
    (4) Winston Churchill
    Answer:
    15. (3) Corsica is a French island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of Italy, southeast of the French mainland, and north of the Italian island of Sardinia. The French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 in the Corsican capital of Ajaccio. His ancestral home, Casa Bonaparte, is today used as a museum.

    16. In which of the following wars, were the French completely defeated by the English ?

    (1) Battle of Wandiwash
    (2) Battle of Buxar
    (3) Battle of Plassey
    (4) Battle of Adyar
    Answer:
    16. (1) The Battle of Wandiwash was a decisive battle in India during the Seven Years’ War. The Count de Lally’s army, burdened by a lack of naval support and funds, attempted to regain the fort at Vandavasi near Pondicherry. He was attacked by Sir Eyre Coote’s forces and decisively defeated. The French general Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau and the French were then restricted to Pondicherry, where they surrendered on 16 January 1761. This was the Third Carnatic War fought between the French and the British. After making substantial gains in Bengal and Hyderabad, the British, after collecting huge amount of revenue, were fully equipped to face the French in Wandiwash. Thus, they defeated the French comprehensively in this Battle.

    17. Marx belonged to

    (1) Germany 
    (2) Holland
    (3) France 
    (4) Britain
    Answer:
    17. (1) Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and
    revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the
    socialist movement. Revolutionary socialist governments espousing Marxist concepts took power
    in a variety of countries in the 20th century, leading to the formation of such socialist states as the Soviet Union in 1922 and the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Many labor unions and workers’ parties worldwide were also influenced by Marxist ideas, while various theoretical variants, such as Leninism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, and Maoism, were developed from them.

    18. The Industrial Revolution in England represented the climax of the transition from

    (1) slavery to feudalism
    (2) feudalism to capitalism
    (3) capitalism to socialism
    (4) socialism to market socialism
    Answer:
    18. (2) Capitalism in Europe was preceded by feudalism. Karl Marx saw the Industrial Revolution as the climax of shift from feudalism to capitalism. The shift took in form of the change in mode of production and the alterations that it brought in class relations.

    19. When did the Soviet Union disintegrate into 15 independent Republics ?

    (1) 1990 
    (2) 1991
    (3) 1992 
    (4) 1993
    Answer:
    19. (2) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Soviet Union was a constitutionally socialist state that existed between 1922 and 1991, ruled as a single-party state by the Communist Party with its capital as Moscow. On 25 December, 1991, the USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation, successor of the Russian SFSR, assumed the Soviet Union’s rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality.

    20. Where did the practice of ‘Shadow Cabinet’ originate ?

    (1) United States of America
    (2) Great Britain
    (3) Italy
    (4) France
    Answer:
    20. (2) The Shadow Cabinet is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of
    government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition form an alternative cabinet to the government’s, whose members shadow or mark each individual member of the Cabinet. Members of a shadow cabinet are often but not always appointed to a Cabinet post if and when their party gets into government. In the United Kingdom and Canada the major opposition party and specifically its shadow cabinet is called His or Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition.

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