Physical Geography GK Quiz-10

Physical Geography GK Quiz-10

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    121. Earthquakes are caused by

    (1) Denudation
    (2) Tectonism
    (3) Earth revolution
    (4) Earth rotation
    121. (2) Earthquakes result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Most occur along plate boundaries. Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane.

    122. The earth completes one rotation on its axis in :

    (1) 23 hrs. 56 min. 4.9 sec
    (2) 23 hrs. 10 min. 2 sec
    (3) 23 hrs. 30 min.
    (4) 24 hrs.
    122. (1) The Earth rotates around its axis once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars. The Earth rotates from the west towards east. Seasons are caused by Earth’s rotation around its axis. 

    123. Granite, quartzite areas have upstanding look because

    (1) mechanically wealthered faster
    (2) these rocks are resistant to all kinds of erosion
    (3) these rocks are not easily croded
    (4) not easily worn down
    123. (4) Granite is high in quartz, a mineral very resistant to weathering. Similarly, quartzite is harder than steel. So, they are not easily worn down and give rise to upstanding mountains and hills (Environmental Biology by P.D. Sharma, p. 37). However, they are subject to differential weathering: a rock that is resistant in a climate dominated by chemical weathering may be weak where physical weathering process dominate, and vice versa. So quartzite, though hard and chemically inert, can be fractured by physical weathering. Similarly, granite outcrops in arid or semi-arid region resist weathering; however, the minerals in granite are susceptible to alteration by oxidation, hydration
    and hydrolysis, particularly in regions with warm, humid conditions (Essentials of Physical Geography
    by Robert Gabler, James Petersen, L. Trapasso, p. 34).

    124. In mountainous areas a natural cause for road blocks is often :

    (1) road repairs and construction
    (2) land slides
    (3) tree felling
    (4) traffic congestion
    124. (2) Heavy rainfall often causes landslides in hilly regions blocking roads as a result and cutting off towns. Huge amounts of debris block access, hampering traffic and affecting businesses.

    125. Which of the following refers to the white salt which covers the land in some areas during dry season?

    (1) usar 
    (2) reh
    (3) erg 
    (4) reg
    125. (2) Reh refers to a mixture of soluble sodium salts appearing as efflorescence on the ground in arid or semiarid regions in India. It covers the land in the form of a white layer. It is also known as Kallar.

    126. Meanders are the features formed by

    (1) glaciers 
    (2) rivers
    (3) winds 
    (4) ocean waters
    126. (2) A meander, in general, is a bend in a sinuous watercourse or river. A meander forms when moving water in a river erodes the outer banks and widens its valley. Meandering rivers erode sediment from the outer curve of each meander bend and deposit it on an inner curve further downstream. When a meander gets cut off from the main stream, an oxbow lake forms.

    127. Uneven distribution of insolation on the earth is mainly due to the

    (1) spherical shape of the earth
    (2) distribution of land and water
    (3) direction of the winds
    (4) presence of pressure belts
    127. (1) Uneven distribution of insolation on the earth is mainly due to the Earth’s tilted axis and the nearly spherical shape. The length of time that the Earth’s surface is exposed to solar radiation also changes throughout the year, depending on the season. Another factor that affects the solar radiation on the Earth is the rotation of the Earth itself. All these factors lead to the unequal distribution of heat on the Earth, creating what is called a heat gradient.

    128. Equinox occurs when the sun is vertically above _____

    (1) Tropic of Capricorn
    (2) Tropic of Cancer
    (3) Poles
    (4) Equator
    128. (4) An equinox is an astronomical event in which the plane of Earth’s equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. The equinoxes are the only times when the Sun is exactly overhead at a point on the equatorial line.On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet.

    129. An Equinox is when:

    (1) Day and night are of equal length
    (2) Day is of the shortest duration during the year
    (3) Day is of the longest duration in the year
    (4) Day when maximum rainfall of the year occurs
    129. (1) An equinox is an astronomical event in which the plane of Earth’s equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size of the sun and atmospheric refraction.

    130. _________ is the thinnest layer of Earth.

    (1) Mantle 
    (2) Outer Core
    (3) Crust 
    (4) Inner Core
    130. (3) The Earth can be divided into four main layers: the solid crust on the outside, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core. Out of them, the mantle is the thickest layer (extends from where the crust ends to about 2,890 km), while the crust is the thinnest layer. The crust ranges from 5–70 km in depth and is the outermost layer.

    131. Why the Earth is having its own atmosphere ?

    (1) Winds 
    (2) Clouds
    (3) Gravity
    (4) Rotation of the Earth
    131. (3) Due to gravity, our Earth has an atmosphere. Gravity causes the gases to be held close to the earth instead of escaping into outer space. Besides, gravity makes the atmosphere denser closer to the Earth – the upper layers push down against the lower layers.

    132. The minimum short-term natural hazard is

    (1) blizzard 
    (2) earthquake
    (3) volcanic eruption
    (4) bolt of lightning
    132. (4) Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, severe thunderstorms, lightening, and wildfires are all examples of sudden natural hazards which develop with little warning and strike rapidly. However, bolt of lightning is the minimum short term hazard of all which lasts few seconds. Lighting is one of the most spectacular results of a thunderstorm.

    133. Molten rock below the surface of the earth is called

    (1) Basalt 
    (2) Laccolith
    (3) Lava 
    (4) Magma
    133. (4) Magma is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth. When magma erupts from a volcano or other vent, the molten rock is referred to as lava. When lava cools on the Earth’s surface and forms a solid structure, it is called igneous rock.

    134. A landscape which is caused due to the fissure in the earth along which one side has moved down with reference to the other is known as

    (1) Rift Valley
    (2) U Shaped Valley
    (3) V Shaped Valley
    (4) Hanging Valley
    134. (1) A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland caused due to the fissure in the earth along which one side moves down with reference to the other. It is commonly seen between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault. A rift valley is formed on a divergent plate boundary, a crustal extension, a spreading apart of the surface.

    135. Sink hole is a phenomenon of :

    (1) Plain 
    (2) Desert
    (3) Tundra 
    (4) Karst
    135. (4) Karst topography, a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum, characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves.A sinkholeis a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. They are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone or other carbonate rock, that can be dissolved naturally by circulating ground water. 

    136. When Granite rocks get metamorphosed, they form

    (1) Quartzite 
    (2) Gneiss
    (3) Marble 
    (4) Slate
    136. (2) Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock formed by the metamorphosis of granite which is a sedimentary rock. Gneiss is typically associated with major mountain building episodes. It is often foliated (composed of layers of sheet-like planar structures), characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands, called “gneissic banding”.

    137. The disconnected lines drawn on a map for showing slope

    (1) Bench marks
    (2) Contours 
    (3) Form lines
    (4) Hachure
    137. (4) Hachures are short disconnected lines drawn on the map to depict the slope of the ground surface. They are drawn in rows; each row being disconnected from the other. They are short and closely spaced for steep slopes and relatively long and widely spaced for gentler slopes. Hachures are not drawn for leveled areas, such as flat valley or a plateau top.

    138. A group of inter-connected islands is known as __________ .

    (1) Strait 
    (2) Peninsula
    (3) Archipelago
    (4) Lagoon
    138. (3) An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, the Maldives, the Bahamas, Greece, Hawaii, and the Azores are examples of well-known archipelagos.

    139. The term “Doab” means

    (1) a land between two mountains
    (2) a land between two lakes
    (3) a land between two rivers
    (4) a land between two seas
    139. (3) Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for the “tongue,” or tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as “a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Jumna).

    140. Magnetic Meridian is a

    (1) Line parallel to the equator of the Earth
    (2) Latitude
    (3) Line joining the geographic north and geographic south of Earth
    (4) Plane passing through the magnetic north and magnetic south of Earth
    140. (4) Magnetic Meridian is a line on the earth’s surface approximating a great circle passing through the north and south magnetic poles. It can be taken as the horizontal component of magnetic force lines along the surface of the earth. A compass needle is parallel to the magnetic meridian.

    141. Isolines joining places of equal rainfall are called ________

    (1) isohyets 
    (2) isotherms
    (3) isobars 
    (4) contours
    141. (1) Isohyet is a line drawn on a map connecting points that receive equal amounts of rainfall in a given period. A map with isohyets is called an isohyetal map.

    142. Which of the following is not an Igneous Rock?

    (1) Dolomite 
    (2) Granite
    (3) Basalt 
    (4) Gabbro
    142. (1) Dolomite is a common sedimentary rock-forming mineralcomposed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. It is the primary component of the sedimentary rock known as dolostone and the metamorphic rock known as dolomitic marble. Limestone that contains some dolomite is known as dolomitic limestone.

    143. If speed of rotation of the earth increases, the weight of the body

    (1) decreases
    (2) increases
    (3) remains the same
    (4) may increase or decrease
    143. (1) The weight of a body on the earth is the amount of gravitational pull on it exerted by the earth. Similarly there is another force exerted on a body on earth, that is centrifugal force due to its rotation which tries to move the body away from the centre of the earth and its maximum at the equator as the velocity of rotation is maximum at the equator of the earth. The gravitational force is balanced by the centrifugal force. With the increase in the speed of rotation of the earth the body at the equator will come more under the influence of the centrifugal force and the weight of the body will seem to have decreased. It is estimated that if the earth rotated 17 times faster than now then weight of a body at the equator will measure zero. However there will not be any change in the weight of a body at any of the poles, since there would not by any change in the centrifugal force there due to increase or decrease in the rotational speed of the earth.

    144. The land forms formed by wave erosion is :

    (1) Spit 
    (2) Beach
    (3) Cave 
    (4) Barrier island
    144. (3) Cliffs, caves, arches, stacks are some of the landforms produced by wave erosion. Coves form where rock runs in bands horizontal to the direction of wave attack. There is a band of resistant rock closest to the sea and a band of less resistant rock inland. The waves seek out faults in the hard rock and erodes using the processes of abrasion/corrasion and hydraulic action through to the soft rock behind.

    145. A drainage pattern where a river is joined by its tributaries approximately at right angles is__

    (1) Dendritic 
    (2) Trellis
    (3) Rectangular
    (4) Radial
    145. (2) When a river is joined by its tributaries at almost right angles, it develops a trellis pattern. Trellis pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.

    146. The core of the earth is also known as

    (1) Lithosphere
    (2) Mesosphere
    (3) Barysphere
    (4) Centrosphere
    146. (3) The interior of the Earth beneath the lithosphere, including both the mantle and the core, is known as barysphere. However, it is sometimes used to refer only to the core or only to the mantle.

    147. The rock that results from solidification of molten lava from a volcano is an example of which of the following ?

    (1) Igneous Rock
    (2) Granite Rock
    (3) Basalt Rock
    (4) Magnetite
    147. (1) Igneous rocks are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma (or lava). As hot, molten rock rises to the surface, it undergoes changes in temperature and pressure that cause it to cool, solidify, and crystallize. There are over 700 known types of igneous rock, the majority of which are formed beneath the surface of the Earth’s crust. However, some are also formed on the surface as a result of volcanic activity.

    148. A broad, low embankment built up along the banks of a river channel during floods is called

    (1) Delta 
    (2) Levee
    (3) Flood Plain
    (4) Dune
    148. (2) A levee, dike, dyke or flood bank is a broad, low embankment built up along the banks ofa river channel during floods. Levees are usually parallel to the way the river flows, so levees can help direct the flow of the river. Levees can also be artificially created or reinforced.

    149. What process takes place during the youthful stage of a river ?

    (1) Valley widening
    (2) River rejuvenating
    (3) Valley deepening
    (4) Meandering
    149. (3) The youthful stage of the river is when water flow is the quickest. Because of steep slope and steep channel gradient in this stage, rivers actively deepen their valleys through vertical erosion. The valley becomes deep and narrow characterized by steep valley side slopes of convex plan. Waterfalls, V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs are features of this stage.

    150. Winds blowing constantly in one direction in rocky deserts form

    (1) Chimneys
    (2) Mushrooms rocks
    (3) Yardangs
    (4) Demoiselles
    150. (3) In regions of rocky deserts, wind abrasion excavates the bands of softer rocks into long, narrow corridors, separating the steep-sided over-hanging ridges of hard rocks, called yardangs. Instead of lying in horizontal strata upon one another, the hard and soft rocks of yardangs are vertical bands and are aligned in the direction of the prevailing winds.

    151. What is the mean temperature of Earth?

    (1) 6 degree Celsius
    (2) 16 degree Celsius
    (3) 26 degree Celsius
    (4) 36 degree Celsius
    151. (2) The average temperature on Earth is about 61o F (16o C). But temperatures vary greatly around the world depending on the time of year, ocean and wind currents and weather conditions. Summers tend to be warmer and winters colder. Also, temperatures tend to be higher near the equator and lower near the poles.

    152. What is the position of the Earth when it is at the greatest distance from the sun ?

    (1) Aphelion 
    (2) Antipode
    (3) Perihelion 
    (4) Aldiate
    152. (1) The Earth is farthest away from the Sun, at the aphelion point, two weeks after the June Solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is enjoying warm summer months. Conversely, it is closest to the Sun, or at the perihelion, about two weeks after the December Solstice, when it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

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