Physical Geography GK Quiz-11

Physical Geography GK Quiz-11

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    11. ‘Green Accounting’ means measuring the National Income of the country taking into account estimation of

    (1) the total forest area of the country
    (2) the destruction of forest cover of the country
    (3) pollution and environmental damage
    (4) area of reclaimed fallow land
    11. (3) Green accounting is a type of accounting that attempts to factor environmental costs into the financial results of operations. It has been argued that gross domestic product ignores the environment and therefore decision-makers need a revised model that incorporates green accounting.

    12. Which one of the following is an abiotic and renewable resource?

    (1) iron ore 
    (2) livestock
    (3) water 
    (4) forests
    12. (3) In ecology and biology, abiotic components (also known as abiotic factors) are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment, which affect ecosystems. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. From the viewpoint of biology, abiotic factors can be classified as light or more generally radiation, temperature, water, the chemical surrounding composed of the terrestrial atmospheric gases, as well as soil. The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. A renewable resource is a natural resource with the ability to reproduce through biological or natural processes and replenished with the passage of time. Renewable resources are part of our natural
    environment and form our eco-system.

    13. The largest ecosystem of the Earth is

    (1) Biome 
    (3) Lithosphere 
    13. (1) Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a large area, creating a typical ecosystem over that area. Such major ecosystems are termed as biomes. Biomes are defined by factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and climate. Major biomes include deserts, forests, grasslands, tundra, and several types of aquatic environments. Each biome consists of many ecosystems whose communities have adapted to the small differences in climate and the environment inside the biome.

    14. An artificial ecosystem is represented by :

    (1) pisciculture tank
    (2) agricultural land
    (3) zoo
    (4) aquarium
    14. (4) An artificial ecosystem is one created by people. You can create an artificial ecosystem in an aquarium or terrarium. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward is credited as the inventor of the terrarium, which he accidently created in 1829.

    15. Which is the most stable ecosystem ?

    (1) Desert 
    (2) Ocean
    (3) Mountain 
    (4) Forest
    15. (2) Ecosystem can be natural or man-made, large or small, permanent or temporary, complete or
    incomplete. Natural ecosystem. It is an ecosystem developed under natural conditions without any
    appreciable human interference. Natural ecosystem can be terrestrial (e.g., forest, desert, grassland) or
    aquatic (e.g., fresh water, lake, pond, river, sea). Oceans constitute the most stable ecosystem.

    16. An ecosystem consists of :

    (1) producers, consumers and decomposers in a particular area.
    (2) all the plants and animals of an area.
    (3) a living community and its environment.
    (4) carnivorous and herbivorous of an area
    16. (3) An ecosystem consists of communities of many different species living together, and all the the
    physical aspects of the particular habitat, such as like soil, water, and weather.

    17. Which one of the following is a greenhouse gas?

    (1) Oxygen
    (2) Nitrogen
    (3) Carbon-di-Oxide
    (4) Ozone
    17. (3) A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.

    18. An ecological system is a

    (1) Biological system
    (2) Biogeochemical system
    (3) Physicochemical system
    (4) Bioecological system
    18. (1) An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. They are biological system in the sense that they represent recurring groups of biological communities that are found in similar physical environments and are influenced by similar dynamic ecological processes, such as fire or flooding.

    19. In predation between

    i. A lion and a deer
    ii. A snake and a frog
    iii. A lizard and an insect and
    iv. An owl and a rat
    Which predator will have greater control over its prey?
    (1) Lion 
    (2) Owl
    (3) Snake 
    (4) Lizard
    19. (3) There are different types of interactions in the biotic community. Frog feeds for snakes. Snakes are the main predators of frogs. The control over a prey is determined by the level of competition faced from other predators. If the same prey is a prey to other predators, the control is considered to be lesser.

    20. After which one of the following tribes of India, has a large continent of ancient geological history of the world been named?

    (1) Santhals 
    (2) Bhils
    (3) Marias 
    (4) Gonds
    20. (4) In paleo-geography, Gondwana, originally Gondwanaland, was the southernmost of two
    supercontinents that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent. It existed from approximately 510 to
    180 million years ago. It included most of the landmasses in today's Southern Hemisphere, including
    Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar and the Australian continent, as well as the Arabian
    Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, which have now moved entirely into the Northern Hemisphere.

    21. Evergreen rain forest is mainly found in regions having well distributed annual rainfall

    (1) Below 50 cm
    (2) 50-100 cm
    (3) 100-200 cm
    (4) More than 200 cm
    21. (4) Tropical evergreen forests are usually found in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall and
    having a temperature of 15 °C to 30 °C. They occupy about seven per cent of the Earth's land surface and harbour more than half of the world’s plants and animals.

    22. Mangrove forests occur in

    (1) high mountains
    (2) snowy plains
    (3) coastal swamps
    (4) interior plateaus
    22. (3) Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees. All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate.

    23. To which natural vegetation belt do Sal and Teak trees belong ?

    (1) Temperate forests
    (2) Equatorial forests
    (3) Tropical deciduous forests
    (4) Mixed forests
    23. (3) The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Deciduous trees predominate in most of these forests, and during the drought a leafless period occurs, which varies with species type. Teak and Sal, along with mango, bamboo, and rosewood, belong to the moist deciduous forests which shed their leaves in the dry season.

    24. The distribution of characteristic vegetation of a region is determined mainly by

    (1) soil, water and temperature
    (2) water, greenhouse effect and altitude
    (3) wind, water and latitude
    (4) sunlight, water and wind
    24. (1) Soil, water and climate of a region are the three primary factors significantly influencing the vegetation of a region. Such factors as depth, texture, and humus content of the soil determine the type of vegetation that can be supported in a region. Again, any vegetation needs moisture to survive and this explains the range which varies from evergreen forests to shrubs. Temperature also plays crucial role in plant growth and development with extremes on either end affecting plant growth severely.

    25. What makes an ecosystem ?

    (1) A living community and its environment
    (2) All the plants and animals of an area
    (3) Carnivores and herbivores of an area
    (4) Producers, consumers and decomposers in a particular locality
    25. (1) An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.

    26. Source of energy in ecosystem is

    (1) Sun
    (2) Green plants
    (3) Sugar produced in photosynthesis
    (4) ATP
    26. (1) An ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving things that work together. It includes soil,
    atmosphere, heat and light from the sun, water and living organisms.

    27. The area reserved for the welfare of wild life is called :

    (1) Sanctuary
    (2) Forest
    (3) National Park
    (4) Botanical garden
    27. (3) A National Park is an area which is strictly reserved for the welfare of wildlife and where activities such as forestry, grazing or cultivation are not allowed. Private ownership, rights and habitat, manipulation are not permitted in a national park. There are 103 national parks in India covering an area of 40,500 km2, which is 1.23% of the geographical area of the country.

    28. There is a need to keep larger area under forests for :

    (1) absorption of carbon dioxide
    (2) protecting wildlife
    (3) raising precipitation
    (4) geological balance
    28. (1) Forests are considered as sinks of carbon dioxide. A carbon sink is anything that absorbs more carbon that it releases, whilst a carbon source is anything that releases more carbon than is absorb. It is for this reason that they are indispensable in the present global scenario marked by increasing global warming and climate change.

    29- Dumping of solid waste in lowlying areas earth cover is called as :

    (1) Sanitary landfilling
    (2) Open dumping
    (3) Composting
    (4) Incineration
    29. (1) Sanitary landfills are low lying sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of isolation achieved may be high.

    30. The cause of loss of forest cover is

    (1) Agriculture
    (2) Building Industry
    (3) Increasing population
    (4) Toursim & pilgrimage
    30. (3) Deforestation is a consequence of a quantum jump in population and the consequent over-exploitation of our natural ecosystems for space, energy and materials. Expanding agriculture due to a burgeoning population base is one of the most important causes of deforestation. As demands on agricultural products rise more and more land is brought under cultivation for which forests are cleared, grass-lands ploughed, uneven grounds leveled, marshes drained and even and under water is reclaimed.

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