Physical Geography GK Quiz-14

Physical Geography GK Quiz-14

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    1. The deflection of the winds to the right in the northern hemisphere is caused by :

    (1) revolution of the earth
    (2) rotation of the earth
    (3) uneven heating of the earth
    (4) All the above
    Answer:
    1. (2) If the Earth didn’t rotate, winds would travel either north or south due to differences in temperature and pressure at different latitudes. But since the Earth does rotate, the Coriolis force deflects these winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The Coriolis Effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth and the inertia of the mass experiencing the effect. Because the Earth completes only one rotation per day, the Coriolis force is quite small, and its effects generally become noticeable only for motions occurring over large distances and long periods of time, such as largescale movement of air in the atmosphere or water in the ocean. Such motions are constrained by the surface of the earth, so only the horizontal component of the Coriolis force is generally important. This force causes moving objects on the surface of the Earth to be deflected in a clockwise sense (with respect to the direction of travel) in the northern hemisphere, and in an anti-clockwise sense in the southern hemisphere.

    2. Atmospheric pressure exerted on earth is due to :

    (1) rotation of earth
    (2) revolution of earth
    (3) gravitational pull
    (4) uneven heating of earth
    Answer:
    2. (3) The atmosphere is made up of gasses. Gasses are physical substances, and all physical substance has weight. The atmosphere is 25 miles thick, and that 25 miles thick layer of gasses presses down on earth with a weight of 15 lbs. per square inch because of the gravitational pull. That’s how atmosphere exerts pressure on the earth.

    3. Which one of the following has the highest wind velocity?

    (1) Typhoon 
    (2) Hurricane
    (3) Cyclone 
    (4) Tornado
    Answer:
    3. (4) A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are about 250 feet (76 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (483 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3.2 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).

    4. Speed of wind is measured by

    (1) barometer 
    (2) hygrometer
    (3) thermometer 
    (4)anemometer
    Answer:
    4. (4) An anemometer is a device for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, meaning wind, and is used to describe any airspeed measurement instrument used in meteorology or aerodynamics. The first known description of an anemometer was given by Leon Battista Alberti around 1450.

    5. Trade winds are due to

    (1) Conduction 
    (2) Convection
    (3) Radiation 
    (4) Scattering
    Answer:
    5. (2) The air moving across the surface towards the extra heated region is known as the trade winds. The region where the northern convective airflow meets the southern and the air starts heading up instead of across the surface is known as the doldrums by sailors. The upwelling warm moist air expands, cools and drops heavy rain, but since it’s moving up instead of across it won’t fill sails.

    6. Ozone-hole in the atmosphere is largely caused by the presence of

    (1) Oxygen
    (2) Hydrogen
    (3) Chloro-floro-carbon
    (4) Radio-active waste
    Answer:
    6. (3) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) are mainly
    responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletion. It is calculated that a CFC molecule takes an average of about five to seven years to go from the ground level up to the upper atmosphere, and it can stay there for about a century, destroying up to one hundred thousand ozone molecules during that time.

    7. The term Roaring Forties is related to the

    (1) Trade winds
    (2) Planetary winds
    (3) Westerlies
    (4) Polar winds
    Answer:
    7. (3) The Roaring Forties is the name given to strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees. The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the western coasts of continents, especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse.

    8. The line on a map connecting points of equal temperature at a given time is

    (1) Isohyet 
    (2) Isobar
    (3) Isthumus 
    (4) Isotherm
    Answer:
    8. (4) An isotherm is a line that connects points on a map that have the same temperature. Therefore, all
    points through which an isotherm passes have the same or equal temperatures at the time indicated.
    Generally, isotherms representing 5 °C or 10 °F temperature differences are used, but any interval may be chosen.

    9. Where does most of the weather phenomena take place?

    (1) Ionosphere 
    (2)Troposphere
    (3) Stratosphere 
    (4)Tropopause
    Answer:
    9. (2) Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or
    stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the stratosphere.
    Weather refers, generally, to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the average atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time.

    10. Very strong and cold icy winds that blow in the Polar regions are called

    (1) Typhoons 
    (2) Tornadoes
    (3) Blizzards 
    (4) Polar winds
    Answer:
    10. (3) A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong winds and low temperatures. The difference between a blizzard and a snowstorm is the strength of the wind. To be a blizzard, a snow storm must have sustained winds or frequent gusts that are greater than or equal to 56 km/h (35 mph) with blowing or drifting snow which reduces visibility to 400 meters or a quarter mile or less and must last for a prolonged period of time — typically three hours or more.

    11. Condensation is the reverse of

    (1) Vaporization 
    (2) Smog
    (3) Cirrus cloud 
    (4) Fog
    Answer:
    11. (1) Condensation is the change of physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase and is the reverse of vaporization. When the relative humidity reaches 100 per cent, the air is completely saturated. The air temperature is said to be as dew-point.

    12. Daily weather changes in the atmosphere are associated with

    (1) Troposphere 
    (2) Mesosphere
    (3) Ionosphere 
    (4) Stratosphere
    Answer:
    12. (1) The lowest layer of the atmosphere, 6 miles (10 km) high in some areas and as much as 12 miles (20 km) high in others, within which there is a steady drop in temperature with increasing altitude and within which nearly all cloud formations occur and weather conditions manifest themselves.

    13. Tropical storm in Chinese Sea is known as–

    (1) Wave 
    (2) Tornado
    (3) Typhoon 
    (4) Cyclone
    Answer:
    13. (3) Tropical Cyclones (also known as Typhoons (in the western Pacific), Hurricanes (Atlantic), or Tropical Revolving Storms) occur all year round over the northern South China Sea. However, the “Typhoon Season” is taken to be from the Autumn transition (Oct) to the first half of the Northeast monsoon (NovDec), when they occur most frequently in the South China Sea.

    14. Convectional Rainfall occurs in:

    (1) Equatorial region
    (2) Temperate region
    (3) Tropical region
    (4) Polar region
    Answer:
    14. (1) Convection rain commonly occurs in warmed or heated areas such as equatorial/tropical regions,
    where there is almost daily occurrence and even distribution of rain, and temperate areas in summer.
    It is also common in the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). It happens when the ground surface is
    locally overheated and the adjacent air, heated by conduction, expands and rises.

    15. Land and sea-breezes occur due to :

    (1) Conduction 
    (2) Convection
    (3) Radiation 
    (4) Tides
    Answer:
    15. (2) During the day, the sun warming the land also warms the air. Since land heats up quicker than water does, the air over land gets warmer than the air over the water. Consequently, the warmer air, being less dense moves up. To fill its place the cooler air over the water moves in to fill its place creating what is known as a Sea Breeze. Reversely, at night the land cools down faster than the water does, and creates a Land Breeze.

    16. Trade winds blow from the

    (1) equatorial low pressure
    (2) polar high pressure
    (3) subtropical high pressure
    (4) subpolar low pressure
    Answer:
    16. (3) Wind flows outward down the pressure gradient away from the subtropical highs. As it does so, it encounters the Coriolis Effect caused by the rotation of the Earth. This force causes the winds in the
    Northern Hemisphere to move from the east towards the west below the subtropical high, and from the
    west towards the east above the subtropical high. The opposite is true in the Southern Hemisphere.
    Above the subtropical high winds move from east to west, and below the subtropical high winds move from west to the east.

    17. Equatorial regions experience

    (1) warm and dry climate
    (2) hot and humid climate
    (3) wet and windy climate
    (4) moderately pleasant climate
    Answer:
    17. (2) The temperature of the equatorial regions is hot throughout the year, with a very low temperature range usually of less than 3 degrees celsius. Tropical rainforest climate is a type of tropical climate in which there is little or no dry season – all months have mean precipitation values of at least 60 mm. Tropical rainforest climates have no pronounced summer or winter; it is typically hot and wet throughout the year and rainfall is both heavy and frequent. One day in an equatorial climate can be very similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature between “summer” and “winter”.

    18. What happens to atmospheric pressure with increase in altitude ?

    (1) It remains constant
    (2) It decreases
    (3) It increases
    (4) It constantly fluctuates
    Answer:
    18. (2) In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure
    caused by the mass of air above the measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric
    mass above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their
    location. Likewise, as elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that pressure
    decreases with increasing elevation.

    19. Mediterranean type of climate is characterized by

    (1) dry summer and wet winter
    (2) wet summer and dry winter
    (3) dry summer and dry winter
    (4) wet summer and wet winter
    Answer:
    19. (1) The climate is characterized by warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the five large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans: the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, South Pacific High, and Indian Ocean High. These high pressure cells shift towards the poles in the summer and towards the equator in the winter, playing a major role in the formation of the world’s tropical deserts and the Mediterranean Basin’s climate.

    20. Which of the following winds is called anti-trade wind ?

    (1) Chinook 
    (2) Cyclone
    (3) Typhoon 
    (4) Westerlies
    Answer:
    20. (1) Westerlies are rather stormy and variable though the main direction remains from west to east. But as their general direction is from the west, they are called the “Westerlies”. They are also known as “Anti-Trade Winds”, because their movement is in the opposite direction from that of the trade wind.

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