Physical Geography GK Quiz-23

Physical Geography GK Quiz-23

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    21. The significant quantity of upper soil is formed by

    (1) Igneous rock
    (2) Sedimentary rock
    (3) Metamorphic rock
    (4) Biological degradation
    21. (2) The significant quantity of upper soil is formed by Sedimentary rock.

    22. In a desert region, soil erosion can be checked by

    (1) Tree plantation/afforestation
    (2) Crop rotation
    (3) Contour ploughing
    (4) Using farm manure
    22. (1) Soil erosion in a desert region can be checked by tree plantation and afforestation.

    23. Alluvial soils are usually

    (i) Rich in nitrogen
    (ii) Poor in humus
    (iii) Highly fertile
    (iv) Easy to plough
    (1) (i), (ii) and (iv)
    (2) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
    (3) (i), (iii) and (iv)
    (4) (i), (ii) and (iii)
    23. (4) Cultivable Wasteland refers to lands that are cultivable but not cultivated for more than five years. It comprises all lands available for cultivation, but not taken up for cultivation. Next to fallow lands, cultivable wastelands are important for agricultural purposes because they can be reclaimed through conservational practices or cultivation or grazing or agro-forestry.

    24. The land which is not cultivated every year though it is suitable for cultivation :

    (1) Waste land
    (2) Pasture land
    (3) Fallow land
    (4) Cultivable waste land
    24. (2) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

    25. The organic matter present in soil is known collectively as

    (1) Hydrocarbons 
    (3) Humus 
    25. (3) The organic matter present in soil is known collectively as humus. Humus is fully decomposed
    and finely divided organic matter. Dune is a hill or ridge of sand accumulated and sorted by wind action.

    26. Which one the following soils is used for the production of bricks ?

    (1) Peaty and organic
    (2) Saline
    (3) Laterite
    (4) Red and yellow
    26. (4) Red Soil is also known as yellow soil. Red soils are formed as a result of the draining down of old crystalline rock, less clayey and sandier in nature. Red clay soil are used for the production of bricks. 

    27. Plantation of trees on a large scale to check soil erosion are called:

    (1) Shelter belts
    (2) Contour ploughing
    (3) Strip cropping
    (4) Afforestation
    27. (4) Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. As plant roots hold the soil, Afforestation prevents soil erosion and enables better retention of water.

    28. Soil formed by leaching and oxidation is

    (1) Black soil 
    (2) Laterite soil
    (3) Red soil 
    (4) Montane soil
    28. (2) Laterisation is a form of chemical weathering that involves oxidation, carbonation and leaching. This natural process results in the formation of Laterite soils.

    29. Soil which is prone to intensive leaching due to rain is called

    (1) Laterite 
    (2) Black
    (3) Alluvial 
    (4) Red
    29. (1) Leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Laterite soils are formed soils under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. They are leached and are, thus, less fertile.

    30. Soil factors are otherwise known as :

    (1) Edaphic factors
    (2) Biotic factors
    (3) Physiographic factors
    (4) Climatic factors
    30. (1) Edaphic is a nature related to soil. Edaphic qualities may characterize the soil itself, including drainage, texture, or chemical properties such as pH. Edaphic may also characterize organisms, such as
    plant communities, where it specifies their relationships with soil.

    31. Highly specialized form of agriculture in which crops like coffee, tea and rubber are cultivated refer to

    (1) multiple cropping
    (2) plantation agriculture
    (3) terrace farming
    (4) extensive farming
    31. (2) Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming where crops are grown for profit. Usually, only one type of crop is grown in a plantation. Common examples include rubber, coffee, tea, bananas, sugar cane, oil palm, cocoa and tobacco.

    32. Identify the most infertile amongst the following soils.

    (1) Black cotton soil
    (2) Alluvial soil
    (3) Laterite soil
    (4) Peaty soil
    32. (3) Lateritic soils are the most weathered and infertile of all soil types. Due to intensive leaching and low base-exchange capacity, typical lateritic soils are generally infertile and of little value for crop production (Geography of India by Smita Sengupta, p 63).

    33. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?

    (1) Khadar – Zonal soil
    (2) Podzol – Zonal soil
    (3) Chestnut – Zonal soil
    (4) Bhangar – Azonal soil
    33. (1) Alluvial soils (khadar and bhangar) are azonal soils. They form in transported and recently deposited materials. Azonal soils have a profile determined predominantly by factors other than local climate and vegetation.

    34. In a desert region, soil erosion can be checked by

    (1) Contour ploughing
    (2) Using farm manure
    (3) Tree plantation/Afforestaion
    (4) Crop rotation
    34. (3) Afforestation holds the key for preventing soil erosion in desert regions and further desertification. Trees or even small plants bind soil to their roots, thereby checking their loosening. Some other measures include: introduction of improved dry farming practices and animal husbandry and plantations for fuel and fodder.

    35. ‘Terra rossa’ is a Latin word which means

    (1) hot area
    (2) red terrain
    (3) lateritic region
    (4) region near the poles
    35. (2) ‘Terra Rossa’ in Latin or Italian language is another name for “Red Soil” or “Red Terrain“. It is a type of red clay soil produced by the weathering of limestone. Terra Rossa is typically found in regions with a Mediterranean climate.

    36. The soils which are rich in Calcium are known as

    (1) Pedocals 
    (2) Pedalfers
    (3) Podsols 
    (4) Laterites
    36. (1) Pedocal soil is characterized by an abundance of calcium carbonate and calcium oxide. Pedocals are common in arid or semiarid regions where the rate of evaporation is greater than the rate of leaching. It has low soil organic matter.

    37. Soil erosion can be prevented by

    (1) Increasing bird population
    (2) Afforestation
    (3) Removal of vegetation
    (4) Overgrazing
    37. (2) Soil erosion takes place when the soil is blown away by the wind or washed away by the rain. Afforestation or planting trees can check soil erosion as roots of trees/plants hold the soil. Thus, when more trees are planted their roots don’t allow the soil to be blown or washed away and prevent soil erosion.

    38. Who of the following has given the term rhizoshere :

    (1) Garret
    (2) Alexopolus
    (3) Hiltner
    (4) None of the given options
    38. (3) Lorenz Hiltner is recognized as the first scientist to coin the term “rhizosphere” in 1904. The word is derived from the Greek word ‘rhiza’, meaning root, and ‘sphere’, meaning field of influence. Hiltner defined the rhizosphere as the zone of soil immediately adjacent to legume roots that supports high levels of bacterial activity.

    39. The asha–grey soils of high–latitude coniferous forests a known as :

    (1) Tundra soils
    (2) Podsols
    (3) Grey–Brown soils
    (4) Red and Yellow soils
    39. (2) Podsols are ash-grey coloured soils that are found in high-latitude coniferous forest belt having very long cold winters, short cool summers and a moderate precipitation throughout the year. These soils are acidic, infertile and of limited value for agriculture. These are useful for dairying and mixed farming.

    40. The remedies to soil erosion are :

    I. Contour bunding
    II. Regulation of land use
    III. Cutting of trees
    IV. Allowing grazing of animals
    (1) I, III 
    (2) I, II
    (3) III, IV 
    (4) II, III
    40. (2) Cutting of trees (deforestation) and grazing of animals are some of the major contributors of soil erosion. Contour bunding is a traditional low-cost method of soil conservation suitable for sloping land; it promotes water retention and helps prevent erosion. Similarly, regulation of land use has a major impact on natural resources including water, soil, nutrients, plants and animals.

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