Physical Geography GK Quiz-3

Physical Geography GK Quiz-3

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    41. Which planet in our solar system is nearly as big as the earth ?

    (1) Mercury 
    (2) Mars
    (3) Venus 
    (4) Pluto
    41. (3) Venus is often referred to as our sister planet because of similarities in size, mass, density and
    volume. It is believed that both planets share a common origin forming at the same time out of a
    condensing nebulosity around 4.5 billion years ago.

    42. Which planets do not have satellites revolving around them ?

    (1) Mars and Venus
    (2) Mercury and Venus
    (3) Mars and Mercury
    (4) Neptune and Pluto
    42. (2) Of the nine planets, only Venus and Mercury have no known natural satellites. A total of 139 moons, or natural satellites, can be found in the vast solar system.

    43. The planet which has the highest surface temperature is

    (1) Jupiter 
    (2) Earth
    (3) Pluto 
    (4) Venus
    43. (4) Venus has a maximum surface temperature of 462°C (862°F) making it the hottest planet in the solar system. The high temperature is because of its dense cloud layer.

    44. Light from the Sun reaches us in nearly

    (1) 8 min 
    (2) 2 min
    (3) 6 min 
    (4) 4 min
    44. (1) The sun’s light takes about 8 minutes to reach the Earth after it has been emitted from the sun’s
    surface. The time it takes for light to reach planets in our Solar System varies from about 3 minutes for
    Mercury, to about 5.3 hours for Pluto. 

    45. A spinning neutron star is known as

    (1) White dwarf 
    (2) Black hole
    (3) Pulsar 
    (4) Quasar
    45. (3) Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that have jets of particles moving almost at the speed of light streaming out above their magnetic poles. These jets produce very powerful beams of light. 

    46. When the moon completely covers the sun, it is known as

    (1) the Antumbra
    (2) the Umbra
    (3) the Penumbra
    (4) None of these
    46. (2) A solar eclipse occurs when the moon crosses the path between the sun and the earth. The darkest shadow (where the sun is completely covered) is called the umbra. The umbra is narrow at the distance of the Earth, and a total eclipse is observable only within the narrow strip of land or sea over which the umbra passes. The partial shadow is called the penumbra.

    47. The darkest portion of the shadow cast during an eclipse is

    (1) Corona 
    (2) Umbra
    (3) Penumbra 
    (4) Black hole
    47. (2) The umbra (Latin for “shadow”) is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where the light source is completely blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse.

    48. The total number of planets revolving around the sun is

    (1) Five 
    (2) Eight
    (3) Seven 
    (4) Six
    48. (2) There are 8 planets of the solar system that revolve around the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Pluto was stripped of its planetary status and categorized as a ‘dwarf planet’ by the International Astronomical Union in 2005.

    49. In a solar or lunar eclipse, the region of earth’s shadow is divided into

    (1) Five parts 
    (2) Four parts
    (3) Two parts 
    (4) Three parts
    49. (4) An eclipse occurs when a star (such as Sun) aligns with two celestial bodies, such as a planet and a moon. The closer body casts a shadow that intersects the more distant body. This means that “things get dark.” The region of shadow is divided into an umbra, where the light from the star is completely blocked, and a penumbra, where only a portion of the light is blocked. Beyond the end of the umbra is a region called the antumbra. For an observer inside the antumbra of a solar eclipse, for example, the moon appears smaller than the sun, resulting in an annular eclipse.

    50. Day and Night are equal at the:

    (1) Prime Meridian
    (2) Antarctic
    (3) Poles
    (4) Eqator
    50. (4) The equator receives equal day and night throughout the year because it does not tilt in relation to the sun’s location. Because of the tilted axis of the Earth, the poles and locations away from the equator lean towards or away from the sun as an orbit is completed, while the equator stays in essentially the same location relative to the sun.

    51. Name the first Asian country to Orbit Mars.

    (1) Japan 
    (2) Pakistan
    (3) China 
    (4) India
    51. (4) India is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt. Its Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan, was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It has been orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.

    52. Which of the following Scientist proved that the path of each planet around the Sun is elliptical?

    (1) Kepler 
    (2) Galileo
    (3) Newton 
    (4) Copernicus
    52. (1) According to Kepler’s First law (Law of Orbits), each planet revolves around the sun in an elliptic orbit, the sun occupying one of the Foci. The elliptical shape of the orbit is a result of the inverse square force of gravity. Kepler’s laws were derived for orbits around the sun, but they apply to satellite orbits as well.

    53. Which of the following is an alternative theory to the Big Bang theory developed in 1948, stating that the universe does not change even though it is expanding over time ?

    (1) Oscillating Universe
    (2) Steady State Universe
    (3) Mirror Universe
    (4) Eternal Inflation
    53. (2) The Steady State theory (also known as the Infinite Universe theory or continuous creation) was developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory. In the steady-state theory, the density of matter in the expanding universe remains unchanged due to a continuous creation of matter. It asserts that the observable universe is basically the same at any time as well as at any place.

    54. The constellation ‘Sapta Rishi’ is known to Westerners as the

    (1) Seven Monks
    (2) Alpha Centauri
    (3) Big Dipper
    (4) Small Bear
    54. (3) The Big Dipper is an asterism consisting of the seven brightest stars of the constellation Ursa Major. In Hindu astronomy, it is referred to as the “Collection of Seven Great Sages” (Saptarshi Mandal), as each star is named after a mythical Hindu sage.

    55. Which of these is a dwarf planet?

    (1) Neptune 
    (2) Titan
    (3) Eris 
    (4) Hydra
    55. (3) Eris is the most massive and second-largest dwarf planet known in the Solar System. It is 27% more massive than dwarf planet Pluto. Eris is the ninthmost-massive known body directly orbiting the Sun, and the largest known body in the Solar System not visited by a spacecraft.

    56. Stars twinkle but planets do not twinkle because

    (1) they emit light of a constant intensity
    (2) their distance from the earth does not change with time
    (3) they are very far away from the earth resulting in decrease in intensity of light
    (4) they are nearer to the earth and hence we receive a greater amount of light and therefore minor variations in intensity are not noticeable
    56. (4) Stars twinkle because they are point light sources. Passing through the atmosphere, the small beam of light constantly shifts by bouncing off particles in the air. The much closer planets appear instead as tiny disks in the sky. Their apparent sizes are usually larger than the pockets of air that would distort their light, so the effects of scintillation are negligible. Being closer, planets appear as discs, with the shifting of light from one side cancelling out the other.

    57. The outermost layer of sun is called

    (1) Lithosphere
    (2) Chromosphere
    (3) Photosphere
    (4) Corona
    57. (4) The corona is the outermost layer of the Sun, starting at about 1300 miles (2100 km) above the
    solar surface (the photosphere). The temperature in the corona is 500,000 K (900,000 degrees F, 500,000 degrees C) or more, up to a few million K. The corona cannot be seen with the naked eye except during a total solar eclipse. The corona does not have an upper limit.

    58. On which date is India likely to experience the shortest day?

    (1) December 22
    (2) March 21
    (3) June 22
    (4) September 23
    58. (1) 21-23 December, also known as winter solstice, is the shortest day of the year in the northern hemisphere. India, being in the northern hemisphere, experiences its shortest day and longest night on this very day. The winter solstice occurs at the moment when the North Pole is tilted furthest away from the sun.

    59. When does solar eclipse take place ?

    (1) When the sun is between the moon and earth
    (2) When the earth is between the moon and sun
    (3) When the moon is between the sun and earth
    (4) When the moon does not lie on the line joining the sun and earth
    59. (3) A solar eclipse occurs when the moon gets between Earth and the sun, and the moon casts a shadow over Earth. A solar eclipse can only take place at the phase of new moon, when the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth and its shadows fall upon Earth’s surface.

    60. When does the sun shine vertically on the Equator ?

    (1) Throughout the year
    (2) For six months
    (3) Twice a year
    (4) Once a year
    60. (3) When the Sun is vertically above the equator, the day is of equal length all over Earth. This happens twice a year, and these are the “equinoxes” in March and in September. Between the two tropic zones, which includes the equator, the Sun is directly overhead twice per year. Outside the tropic zones, whether to the south or north, the Sun is never directly overhead.

    61. If a star is bigger than Sun, but not more than twice as big, it will turn into a _______.

    (1) Pulsar 
    (2) Maxima
    (3) Avenger 
    (4) Discover
    61. (1) If the star is about the mass of the Sun or less than that, it will turn into White Dwarfs. If the star is bigger than the Sun but not more than twice as big, it will turninto a Neutron Star or Pulsar. If the star is many times bigger than the Sun, it will turn into what is called a Black Hole.

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