Physical Geography GK Quiz-4

Physical Geography GK Quiz-4

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    1. Which among the following statements is true regarding International Date line ?

    (1) It is 180° Longitude
    (2) It is a straight line
    (3) It is a big circle
    (4) It is a curved line beyond earth
    1. (1) The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, that runs from the north to the South Pole and demarcates one calendar day from the next. It passes through the middle
    of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° longitude but it deviates to pass around some territories and island groups. From the north, the date line first deviates to the east of 180° to pass to the east of Russia’s Wrangel Island and the Chukchi Peninsula which is the easternmost part of Russian Siberia. The date line then passes through the Bering Strait between the Diomede Islands at a distance of 1.5 km from each island. The line then bends considerably southwest, passing west of St. Lawrence
    Island and St. Matthew Island. It then passes midway between Alaska’s Aleutian Islands and Russia’s
    Commander Islands before returning southeast to 180°. Thus all of Siberia is to the west of the International Date Line, and all of Alaska is to the east of that line.

    2. The sunlight is available 24 hours on the longest day at which of the following latitudes of the earth ?

    (1) 49° 
    (2) 66½°
    (3) 63° 
    (4) 69°51'
    2. (2) During the June solstice the Earth’s North Pole is tilted 23.5 degrees towards the Sun relative to the circle of illumination. This phenomenon keeps all places above latitude of 66.5 degrees N in 24 hours of sunlight, while locations below latitude of 66.5 degrees are in darkness.

    3. The Grand Canyon is located on the :

    (1) Colorado River
    (2) Rhine River
    (3) Tapi River
    (4) Niger River
    3. (1) The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona. It is contained within and managed by Grand Canyon National Park, the Hualapai Tribal Nation, and the Havasupai Tribe. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area. A number of processes combined to create the views that we see in today’s Grand Canyon. The most powerful force to have an impact on the Grand Canyon is erosion, primarily by water (and ice) and second by wind. Other forces that contributed to the Canyon’s formation are the course of the Colorado River itself, volcanism, continental drift and slight variations in the earth’s orbit which in turn causes variations in seasons and climate.

    4. Extensive deserts occur in the western tropical regions of continents because :

    (1) of easterly trade winds.
    (2) cold ocean currents flow along the western coasts.
    (3) of the effect of both the offshore easterly trade winds and cold ocean currents.
    (4) the rate of evaporation is greater along the western margin areas.
    4. (3) Extensive deserts occur in the western tropical regions of continents because of the effect of both
    the offshore easterly trade winds and cold ocean currents. Most deserts arise due to atmospheric wind
    conditions. Other deserts result from the effects of ocean currents on landmasses, where cool air masses
    carry fog and mist, but little rain, along coastal regions. World desert map depicts the location of all the
    deserts of the world. ... They are centered along the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The heart of the
    tropical desert climate is found near the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, usually toward the western
    side of the continents.

    5. The deposits of the ancient Tethys Sea were folded to form the :

    (1) Himalayas 
    (2) Rockies
    (3) Andes 
    (4) Alps
    5. (1) Around 200 million years ago (also known as the Middle Permian Period), an extensive sea stretched along the latitudinal area presently occupied by the Himalayas. This sea was named the Tethys. Around this period, the super continent Pangaea began to gradually split into different land masses and move apart in different directions.

    6. Which one of the following types of erosion is responsible for the formation of Chambal Ravines?

    (1) Splash 
    (2) Sheet
    (3) Rill 
    (4) Gully
    6. (4) Chambal ravine formation significantly increases soil loss from agricultural lands and severely impacts agricultural productivity. A review of ephemeral gully erosion and spreading rates of the ravenous tracks of Lower Chambal Valley using geospatial tools shows that both the ravenous and the marginal lands have increased during the last 15 years.

    7. The west to east extension of the Himalayas is from

    (1) Indus gorge to Dihang gorge
    (2) K2 to Chomoihari
    (3) Nanga Parbat to Namcha Barwa
    (4) Rakaposhi to Lohit river
    7. (1) The Himalayas, geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretch over the northern borders of India. These mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. The Brahmaputra marks the eastern most boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dihang gorge, the
    Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of india.

    8. Most of the devastating earthquakes are usually caused by

    (1) Eustatic movement
    (2) Isostatic adjustment
    (3) Collision of earth plates
    (4) Volcanic eruption
    8. (3) An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. The world’s earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth’s surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones. An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth’s sciences. Plate tectonics tells us that the Earth’s rigid outer shell (lithosphere) is broken into a mosaic of oceanic and continental plates which can slide over the plastic asthenosphere, which is the uppermost layer of the mantle. The plates are in constant motion. Where they interact, along their margins, important geological processes take place, such as the formation of mountain belts, earthquakes, and volcanoes.

    9. Which one of the following is the greatest circle ?

    (1) Arctic Circle
    (2) Equator
    (3) Tropic of Cancer
    (4) Tropic of Capricorn
    9. (2) A great circle, also known as an orthodrome or Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere, as opposed to a general
    circle of a sphere where the plane is not required to pass through the center. The equator is the circle
    that is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole. It divides the Earth into the Northern
    Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Of the parallels or circles of latitude, it is the longest, and
    the only ‘great circle’ (in that it is a circle on the surface of the earth, centered on the center of the
    earth). All the other parallels are smaller and centered only on the earth’s axis.

    10. Hanging Valley is formed due to the action of

    (1) Glacier 
    (2) River
    (3) Ocean 
    (4) Wind
    10. (1) A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with Ushaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume. The main glacier erodes a deep U-shaped valley with nearly vertical sides while the tributary glacier, with a smaller volume of ice, makes a shallower U-shaped valley. Since the surfaces of the glaciers were originally at the same elevation, the shallower valley appears to be ‘hanging’ above the main valley.

    11. Mushroom Rocks are the typical land forms seen in

    (1) River Valleys
    (2) Mountain tops
    (3) Coastal areas
    (4) Deserts
    11. (4) A mushroom rock, also called rock pedestal or a pedestal rock, is a naturally occurring rock whose shape, as its name implies, strikingly resembles a mushroom. Usually found in desert areas, these rocks are formed over thousands of years when wind erosion of an isolated rocky outcrop progresses at a different rate at its bottom to that at its top.

    12. Basaltic lava is found in the

    (1) Deccan Trap
    (2) Himalayas
    (3) Indo-Gangetic Plain
    (4) North-Eastern Hills
    12. (1) The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (between 17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. They consist of multiple layers of solidified flood basalt that together are more than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) thick and cover an area of 500,000 km2 (193,051 sq mi) and a volume of 512,000 km3 (123,000 cu mi). The term “trap”, used in geology for such rock formations, is derived from the Swedish word for stairs and refers to the steplike hills forming the landscape of the region.

    13. Which one of the following types of erosion is responsible for the formation of Chambal Ravines ?

    (1) Splash 
    (2) Sheet
    (3) Rill 
    (4) Gully
    13. (4) Chambal ravine formation significantly increases soil loss from agricultural lands and severely impacts agricultural productivity. A review of ephemeral gully erosion and spreading rates of the ravenous tracks of Lower Chambal Valley using geospatial tools shows that both the ravenous and the marginal lands have increased during the last 15 years.

    14. Consider the following geological phenomena :

    I. Development of a fault
    II. Movement along a fault
    III. Impact produced by a volcanic eruption
    IV. Folding of rocks
    Which of the above causes earthquakes ?
    (1) I, II and III 
    (2) II and IV
    (3) I, III and IV 
    (4) I to IV
    14. (1) Earthquakes are caused by faulting, a sudden lateral or vertical movement of rock along a rupture (break) surface. Earthquakes often occur in volcanic regions and are caused there, both by tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can serve as an early warning of volcanic eruptions, as during the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980.

    15. Shale is metamorphosed into which of the following rocks?

    (1) Graphite 
    (2) Gneiss
    (3) Marble 
    (4) Slate
    15. (4) From depth of burial by continual sediment deposition from above, or from compressional stress
    from tectonic plate collisions, shale is metamorphosed into slate over periods of millions of years. During this compression, the clay minerals making up the shale decompose as they become unstable in the high pressure environment, and their chemical components are gradually transformed into minerals
    that are more stable in the newly forming higher pressure environment.

    16. Where are the hot deserts generally found ?

    (1) On the eastern margins of the Tropics
    (2) On the western margins of the Tropics
    (3) Nearer the Equator
    (4) In the middle of the Continents
    16. (2) The deserts lie in the belt of the trade winds which blow from northeast in the northern hemisphere and southeast in the southern hemisphere. There-fore, the general direction of the trade winds is from the east to west. These winds shed their moisture on the eastern margins of the continents and by the time they reach the west they have lost their moisture. The hot desert climate is found around the tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, usually on the west side of continents. Examples are the Thar Desert in Pakistan and the Atacama desert in Chile.

    17. Why are winters more severe in Southern Hemisphere than in Northern Hemisphere?

    (1) Earth is titled towards the sun in the Northern Hemisphere
    (2) Northern Hemisphere receives more sunlight
    (3) Because of more iceberg activity in Southern Hemisphere
    (4) Southern Hemisphere is less inhabited
    17. (1) The winter in the Southern Hemisphere occurs when the Northern hemisphere is tilted more toward the Sun. From the perspective of an observer on the Earth, the winter Sun has a lower maximum altitude in the sky than the summer Sun.

    18. Marble is the metamorphosed form of

    (1) Shale 
    (2) Basalt
    (3) Sandstone 
    (4) Limestone
    18. (4) Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of re-crystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term “marble” to refer to metamorphosed limestone. Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.

    19. The highest mountain peak of the Himalayas is situated in—

    (1) India 
    (2) Tibet
    (3) Nepal 
    (4) China
    19. (3) Overall, the Himalayan mountain system is the world’s highest, and is home to the world’s highest peaks, the Eight-thousanders. The Mount Everest is the highest peak having elevation of 8848 m and is situated in East of Kathmandu on Sagarmatha Zone Nepal. Mount Everest is the Earth’s highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international border between China and Nepal runs across the precise summit point.

    20. Metamorphic rocks originate from—

    (1) igneous rocks
    (2) sedimentary rocks
    (3) both igneous and sedimentary rocks
    (4) None of these
    20. (3) Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have “morphed” into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build-up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you’ll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are.

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