Physical Geography GK Quiz-6

Physical Geography GK Quiz-6

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

41. Equator represents

(1) line joining North and South poles
(2) imaginary line passing round the Earth midway between North & South poles
(3) a belt (ring) around the planet Saturn
(4) axis of rotation of Earth
Answer:
41. (2) An equator is the intersection of a sphere’s surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere’s axis of rotation and containing the sphere’s center of mass. Notably, the Equator refers to the Earth’s equator, per above: an imaginary line on the Earth’s surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. Other planets and spherical astronomical bodies have equators similarly defined. The length of the Equator is roughly 40,075 kilometres.

42. The acceleration due to gravity at the equator

(1) is less than that at the poles
(2) is greater than that at the poles
(3) is equal to that at the poles
(4) does not depend on the earth’s centripetal acceleration
Answer:
42. (1) The gravity of Earth, denoted g, refers to the acceleration that the Earth imparts to objects on or
near its surface. At latitudes nearer the Equator, the inertia produced by Earth’s rotation is stronger than
at polar latitudes. This counteracts the Earth’s gravity to a small degree – up to a maximum of 0.3% at the Equator – reducing the downward acceleration of falling objects. The second major reason for the difference in gravity at different latitudes is that the Earth’s equatorial bulge (itself also caused by inertia) causes objects at the Equator to be farther from the planet’s centre than objects at the poles. Because the force due to gravitational attraction between two bodies (the Earth and the object being weighed) varies inversely with the square of the distance between them, an object at the Equator experiences a weaker gravitational pull than an object at the poles.

43. The ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’ is associated with

(1) oil well fires
(2) thermal power station
(3) volcanoes and earthquakes
(4) forest fires
Answer:
43. (3) The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly
continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt. About 90% of the world’s earthquakes and 81% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire.

44. Which one of the following rivers forms an estuary ?

(1) Ganga
(2) Tapti
(3) Godavari
(4) Mahanadi
Answer:
44. (2) Tapti river empties into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, forming an estuary. It is fed by  monsoon rains. The mean flow rate is about 600 cu m per sec,with the maximum in the summer. The Tapti is navigable by small craft for a distance of 50 km from the mouth. In some places it is used for irrigation. The seaport of Surat is located in the estuary.

45. How much of the Earth's land surface is desert ?

(1) 1/10th
(2) 1/5th
(3) 1/3rd
(3) 1/6th
Answer:
45. (3) Deserts take up about one third (33%) of the Earth’s land surface. Hot deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high daytime temperatures, and low nighttime temperatures (due to extremely low humidity). In hot deserts the temperature in the daytime can reach 45 °C/113 °F or higher in the summer, and dip to 0 °C/32 °F or lower at nighttime in the winter.

46. What percentage of world’s freshwater is stored as glacial ice ?

(1) 50%
(2) 10%
(3) 70%
(4) 30%
Answer:
46. (3) About 70% of the world’s fresh water is stored as glacial ice. Only 3% water of the earth is fresh, rest 97% salted. Of that 3%, over 2% is frozen in ice sheets and glaciers. Means less than 1% fresh water is found in lakes, rivers and underground.

47. The approximate circumference of the Earth is

(1) 13,000 km
(2) 20,000 km
(3) 25,000 km
(4) 30,000 km
Answer:
47. (3) The circumference of the earth at the equator is 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 kilometers). But, if we measure the earth through the poles the circumference is a bit shorter - 24,859.82 miles
(40,008 km). Thus, the earth is a tad wider than it is tall, giving it a slight bulge at the equator. This shape is known as an ellipsoid or more properly, geoid (earth-like).

48. Desertification can be checked by

(1) plugging gullies
(2) checking over-grazing
(3) contour ploughing
(4) forming shelter belts
Answer:
48. (2) Overgrazing is the major cause of desertification worldwide. Plants of semi-arid areas are adapted to being eaten by sparsely scattered, large, grazing mammals which move in response to the patchy rainfall common to these regions. Early human pastoralists living in semi-arid areas copied this
natural system. They moved their small groups of domestic animals in response to food and water
availability. Such regular stock movement prevented overgrazing of the fragile plant cover.

49. In an iceberg floating in the sea, out of 10 parts of its mass, how much will remain above the surface of the water?

(1) 1 part
(2) 2 parts
(3) 4 parts
(4) 6 parts
Answer:
49. (1) Because the density of pure ice is about 920 kg/ m³, and that of sea water about 1025 kg/m³, typically only one-ninth of the volume of an iceberg is above water.

50. A day is added when one crosses

(1) the equator from south to north
(2) 180 degree longitude from east to west
(3) the equator from north to south
(4) 180 degree longitude from west to east
Answer:
50. (1) A traveler crossing the International Date Line eastbound subtracts one day, or 24 hours, so that
the calendar date to the west of the line is repeated. Crossing the IDL westbound results in 24 hours being added, advancing the calendar date by one day. The International Date Line is necessary to have a fixed, albeit arbitrary, boundary on the globe where the calendar date advances in the westbound direction.

51. When does the moon come between the Sun and earth?

(1) Lunar eclipse
(2) Solar eclipse
(3) Sidereal day
(4) Full moon day
Answer:
51. (2) As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses only part of the Sun is obscured.

52. The latitude of a place is expressed by its angular distance in relation to—

(1) Equator
(2) South Pole
(3) Axis of the Earth
(4) North Pole
Answer:
52. (1) Latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface. The lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles.

53. Hanging Valley is very common in

(1) high mountains
(2) sub-Arctic region
(3) glaciated areas
(4) coastal belt
Answer:
53. (3) When the glaciers melt, the tributary troughs are left as hanging valleys high on the walls of the main glacial valley. A hanging valley is a tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows. They are most commonly associated with U-shaped valleys when a tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume.

54. The word ‘dendritic’ is associated with—

(1) wind
(2) waves
(3) rivers
(4) glaciers
Answer:
54. (3) Dendritic drainage systems are the most common form of drainage system. The term Dendritic comes from the Latin word "dendron", meaning tree, due to the resemblance of the system to a tree. In a dendritic system there is one main river (like the trunk of a tree), which is joined and formed by many smaller ributary rivers. Dendritic systems form in V-shaped valleys; as a result, the rock types must be impervious and non-porous.

55. When the earth is at the maximum distance from the Sun, it is called

(1) Aphelion
(2) Perihelion
(3) Equinox
(4) Sidereal
Answer:
55. (1) Aphelion is the point in the path of a celestial body (as a planet) that is farthest from the sun. Its
opposite is Perihelion which is the point on its orbit when the Earth is closest to the sun.

56. The scale that measures the intensity of earthquakes is called as

(1) Vernier scale
(2) Richter scale
(3) Beaufort scale
(4) Diagonal scale
Answer:
56. (*) An earthquake is measured by its Magnitude and Intensity. The Magnitude indicates the amount of energy released at the source (or epicenter) and is measured by the open-ended Richter Scale. The
intensity of an earthquake at a particular locality indicates the violence of earth motion produced there
by the earthquake. It is computed with the help of Modified Mercalli Scale (MMS).

57. The main source of usable water on the Earth is

(1) Oceans
(2) Rivers
(3) Underground water
(4) Precipitation
Answer:
57. (3) Even though most of the Earth's surface is water, only 1% of it is fresh usable water. Ninety-seven percent of the Earth's water is saltwater, which contains too many minerals for humans to use
untreated. Two percent of our water is "locked up" in ice caps and glaciers, leaving only one percent as
usable fresh water. Groundwater comprises 0.62 per cent of water, followed by Freshwater Lakes: 0.009
per cent; and rivers: 0.0001 per cent.

58. Which of the following rivers lies in a rift valley?

(1) Luni
(2) Chambal
(3) Sone
(4) Tapti
Answer:
58. (4) There are three Peninsular rivers which flow in a rift valley. Narmada flows westward between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges. The Tapti River and Mahi River also flow through rift valleys, but between different ranges.

59. What is meant by Isthmus?

(1) Mouth of a river where it joins the sea
(2) Narrow strip of water dividing two land masses
(3) Narrow strip of land dividing two oceans
(4) Narrow strip of land connecting two large areas of land
Answer:
59. (3) An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas, usually with water on either side. The Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; the Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, cutting across the western side of an isthmus formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Strait is the sea counterpart of isthmus.

60. Natural embankments found on upper valley sides are-known as

(1) high banks
(2) levees
(3) bunds
(4) ridge
Answer:
60. (2) A levee is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along lowlying coastlines.