Physical Geography GK Quiz-7

Physical Geography GK Quiz-7

Physical Geography Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Physical Geography for competitive examinations.

    61. Vocanoes are scattered

    (1) all over the world
    (2) only along the coasts
    (3) on the islands
    (4) mainly along young fold mountains
    61. (3) Composite volcanoes are most commonly found in island arcs. Most of them are found scattered on the islands adjoining the Pacific Ring of Fire where about 75% of Earth's volcanoes are found. It is a
    region of high volcanic and seismic activity that surrounds the majority of the Pacific Ocean Basin.

    62. Which of the following minerals are required for smelting iron ore?

    (1) Limestone and gypsum
    (2) Manganese and limestone
    (3) Limestone and coal
    (4) Gypsum and coal
    62. (2) Manganese ores are used for smelting ferromanganese, cast iron and pig iron containing
    about 1% Mn. Besides coal and iron ore, the other basic minerals required for the iron and steel industry are manganese, limestone and chromite. Manganese is used in the process of converting pig iron into steel; limestone or dolomite is used in smelting iron ore; and chromite is used as an alloy in steel making.

    63. One of the following is not the result of underground water action

    (1) Stalactites 
    (2) Stalagmites
    (3) Sink holes 
    (4) Fiords
    63. (4) Geologically, a fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. A fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. Glacial melting is accompanied by rebound of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. Both the whole coast of Norway and the island of Greenland have many fjords.

    64. The inner-most layer of the earth is known as

    (1) Lithosphere
    (2) Mesosphere
    (3) Asthenosphere
    (4) Barysphere
    64. (3) The inner core is the innermost physical layer of the Earth. The asthenosphere is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely-deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth. It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between 100 and 200 km below the surface, but perhaps extending as deep as 700 km.

    65. The temperature of water at the bottom of a large waterfall is higher than that of the water at the top. because

    (1) the falling water absorbs heat from the Sun.
    (2) the water at the bottom has greater potential energy.
    (3) the kinetic energy of the falling water is converted into heat.
    (4) rocks on the bed of the river give out heat.
    65. (3) The water gains kinetic energy as it falls down and loses its potential energy. Assuming no other
    losses, part of the kinetic energy gain of water is converted into heat, raising the temperature of water. 

    66. Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

    (1) Sandstone 
    (2) Shale
    (3) Quartzite 
    (4) Granite
    66. (4) Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic rock. In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive (plutonic), extrusive (volcanic) or hypabyssal. Granite is an intrusive igneous rock which is formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet. They form central cores of major mountain ranges.

    67. The greatest erosive power of a river is associated with

    (1) gorges
    (2) meanders
    (3) inter-locking spurs
    (4) V-shaped valley
    67. (2) Erosive power of a stream is proportional to the square of the velocity. Thus, when discharge
    increases, the depth increases and the velocity increases, resulting in dramatic increase of erosive
    power. As the volume flowing in a stream increases, the stream's erosive power also increases. At a bend in a stream the water's momentum carries the mass of the water against the outer bank. The greater depth on the outer side of the bend also leads to higher velocity at the outer bank. The greater velocity combined with the greater inertial force on the outer bank erodes a deeper channel. The result of all these actions is a meander.

    68. Prime Meridian passes through

    (1) Greenwich 
    (2) Ujjain
    (3) New York 
    (4) Tokyo
    68. (1) A prime meridian is a meridian, i.e. a line of longitude, at which longitude is defined to be 0°. An international conference in 1884 decided the prime meridian passes through the Royal Observatory,
    Greenwich in southeast London, United Kingdom, known simply as the prime meridian.

    69. What is the epicentre of an Earthquake?

    (1) The point at which earthquake originates
    (2) The point which is prone to volcanoes
    (3) The point from which the intensity of seismic waves declines
    (4) The point on the earth’s surface vertically above the seismic focus
    69. (4) The epicenter is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates. In the case of earthquakes, the epicenter is directly above the point where the fault begins to rupture, and in most cases, it is the area of greatest damage.

    70. The main cause of recurring flood is

    (1) Soil erosion
    (2) Deforestation
    (3) Silting of river beds
    (4) All of the above
    70. (4) Floods are caused by a variety of factors, both natural and man-made. Apart from soil erosion and silting of river beds which force the water of rivers/ streams to spill over, deforestation has lately been a key factor in fostering recurrent floods. The presence of trees act as checks against water flow and in turn protect the underlying soil from getting eroded and then getting washed away.

    71. Which one of the following is the greatest circle ?

    (1) Tropic of Cancer
    (2) Tropic of Capricorn
    (3) Equator
    (4) Arctic Circle
    71. (3) An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass. This imaginary line on the Earth's surface is
    equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and
    Southern Hemisphere. It is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth, with the others being the
    two Polar Circles and the two Tropical Circles: the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

    72. In the context of ‘time’, GMT means

    (1) General Meridian Time
    (2) Greenwich Mean Time
    (3) Global Mean Time
    (4) None of these
    72. (2) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a time system originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, which later became adopted as a global time standard. It is the term in common use in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, South Africa, India, Pakistan and Malaysia, as well as many other countries in the Old World.

    73. Which of the following is a typical feature of river erosion in youthful stage ?

    (1) Ox-bow lake
    (2) Gorge
    (3) Valley in valley
    (4) Cut-bank
    73. (2) Youthful rivers or streams are typically found in the highland or mountainous areas. They are
    characterized by steep slopes, a relatively small volume of water and rapid flow. Soil particles carried
    by youthful streams flow along the ground, wearing down hill slopes as the water flows down. In this
    youthful stage of the river, such features as small lakes, waterfalls, rapids, V-shaped valleys, gorges
    and interlocking spurs are frequently found.

    74. Which one of the following is not the result of underground water action?

    (1) Stalactites 
    (2) Stalagmites
    (3) Sinkholes 
    (4) Fiords
    74. (4) Geologically, a fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. A fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock.

    75. Which one of the following is an unpredictable natural disaster ?

    (1) Earthquake 
    (2) Cyclone
    (3) Tornado 
    (4) Hurricane
    75. (1) Despite rapid advances in earth sciences and technology, it is hard to predict the exact timing of
    an earthquake. The suddenness associated with earthquakes is the main reason behind severe damage
    to life and property. Due to the general unpredictability of earthquakes, it is best to stress the importance of planning ahead.

    76. The natural gaps across the mountains which provide routes are called

    (1) Peaks 
    (2) Dunes
    (3) Plateaus 
    (4) Passes
    76. (4) A Mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's
    mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before
    recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war, and migration.

    77. ‘Flash floods’ are associated with

    (1) Thunderstorms
    (2) Cyclonic storms
    (3) Tsunami
    (4) Tornado
    77. (2) A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm or cyclone, or melt-water from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields.

    78. Tundras are

    (1) Deciduous forests
    (2) Tropical rain forests
    (3) Cold deserts
    (4) Hot deserts
    78. (3) In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic
    tundra where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the low vapor pressure of water in the chilly atmosphere, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get
    precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes.

    79. The rapid sliding of large masses of bed rocks is called :

    (1) Landslide 
    (2) Earthquake
    (3) Weathering 
    (4) Mass wasting
    79. (1) The rapid sliding of large masses of bed rocks is called Landslide.

    80. Which type of lake is formed by volcanic activities ?

    (1) Caldera lake
    (2) Karst lake
    (3) Lagoon
    (4) Fresh water lake
    80. (1) Caldera refers to a large basin-shaped Crater that is bound by steep cliffs. The Caldera best known in North America is Crater Lake.

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