Science & Technology Quiz-2

Science & Technology Quiz-2

Science & Technology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Science & Technology for competitive examinations.

    21. Which space-vehicle put man on the moon first time ?

    (1) Apollo 
    (2) Challenger
    (3) Columbia 
    (4) Explorer
    Answer:
    21. (1) Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on the Moon on July 20, 1969. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface 6 hours later on July 21. Armstrong spent about two and a half hours outside the spacecraft, Aldrin slightly less; and together they collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material for return to Earth. A third member of the mission, Michael Collins, piloted the command spacecraft alone in lunar orbit until Armstrong and Aldrin returned to it for the trip back to Earth. Launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center in Merritt Island, Florida on July 16, Apollo 11 was the fifth manned mission of NASA’s Apollo program.

    22. At what height geosynchronus orbit is located ?

    (1) 6 km 
    (2) 1000 km
    (3) 3600 km 
    (4) 36,000 km
    Answer:
    22. (4) A geostationary orbit, or Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), is a circular orbit 35,786 kilometres above the Earth’s equator and following the direction of the Earth’s rotation. An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth’s rotational period (one sidereal day), and thus appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers. Communications satellites and weather satellites are often given geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas that communicate with them do not have to move to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where they stay. A geostationary orbit is a particular type of geosynchronous orbit.

    23. The orbits of planets around the sun may be

    (1) Great circular and parabolic
    (2) Parabolic and hyperpara bolic
    (3) Circular and parabolic
    (4) Circular and great circular
    Answer:
    23. (*) The orbit of a planet around the Sun is an ellipse, with the Sun in one of the focal points of the ellipse. [This focal point is actually the barycenter of the Sunplanet system; for simplicity this explanation assumes the Sun’s mass is infinitely larger than that planet’s.] Within a planetary system, planets, dwarf planets, asteroids (a.k.a. minor planets), comets, and space debris orbit the barycenter in elliptical orbits. A comet in a parabolic or hyperbolic orbit about a barycenter is not gravitationally bound to the star and therefore is not considered part of the star’s planetary system. Bodies which are gravitationally bound to one of the planets in a planetary system, either natural or artificial satellites, follow orbits about a barycenter near that planet. Galileo believed that the inertial path of a body around the Earth must be circular. Lacking the idea of Newtonian gravitation, he hoped this would allow him to explain the path of the planets as circular inertial orbits around the Sun. When Newton solved this problem, he showed that there are four possible paths for the planets: circular, elliptical, parabolic and
    hyperbolic (all are conic curves). The first two curves are closed and the other two are open curves. These results were obtained for the same energy and with the sun at rest.

    24. What is supernova ?

    (1) A black hole 
    (2) A dying star
    (3) An asteroid 
    (4) A comet
    Answer:
    24. (2) The Supernova is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. The explosion expels much or all of a star’s material. Supernovae can be triggered in one of two ways: by the sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star; or by the collapse of the core of a massive star. The core of an aging massive star may undergo sudden gravitational collapse, releasing gravitational potential energy that can create a supernova explosion. Alternatively a white dwarf star may accumulate sufficient material from a stellar companion (either through accretion or via a merger) to raise its core temperature enough to ignite carbon fusion, at which point it undergoes runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting it.

    25. Which of the following is the first missile which has been developed in India ?

    (1) Akash 
    (2) Prithvi
    (3) Agni 
    (4) Trishul
    Answer:
    25. (2) The Government of India launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program in 1983 to achieve self sufficiency in the development and production of wide range of Ballistic Missiles, Surface to Air Missiles etc. Prithvi was the first missile to be developed under the Program. DRDO attempted to build Surface-to-air Missile under Project Devil. The Prithvi missile project encompassed developing 3 variants for use by the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy. Over the years these specifications underwent a number of changes. While the codename Prithvi stands for any missile inducted by India into its armed forces in this category, the later developmental versions are codenamed as Prithvi II and Prithvi III. Prithvi I class was a surface-tosurface missile having a maximum warhead mounting capability of 1,000 kg, with a range of 150 km. It has an accuracy of 10 – 50 metres and can be launched from Transporter erector launchers. This class of Prithvi missile was inducted into the Indian Army in 1994.

    26. INS ‘Virat’ serves the Indian Navy. It is a

    (1) Submarine
    (2) Gunboat
    (3) Aircraft carrier
    (4) Freighter
    Answer:
    26. (3) INS Viraat is a Centaur class aircraft carrier currently in service with the Indian Navy. INS Viraat is the flagship of the Indian Navy, the oldest carrier in service and one of two aircraft carriers based in the Indian Ocean Region. Viraat is currently the second largest ship in the Indian Navy after the INS Jyoti. Viraat was completed and commissioned in 1959 as the Royal Navy’s HMS Hermes and was transferred to India in 1987.

    27. To an astronaut in a spacecraft, the sky appears to be

    (1) Blue 
    (2) White
    (3) Dark 
    (4) Red
    Answer:
    27. (3) We see colors because of the way light is reflected off of objects or substances. Light can either be absorbed into the object (or substance) or reflected. If an object or substance absorbs all wavelengths (colors) except blue, blue will be reflected and that is the color we see. If a substance absorbs all wavelengths except red and yellow the object will appear orange. If an object or substance absorbs no wavelengths but reflects them all, it is white - not black, as you might think. The color white is a combination of all colors. Black is the absence of any color. Space is black because there are no substances or objects to reflect back any color (or all colors, which would make it white). That is also why the astronauts see the earth as we see it in photos, but the space around it is black. The light from the sun is reflected back as the blues and greens and browns that we see, but the space around the earth is just that - empty space and therefore does not reflect back any colors, so it is black.

    28. The first person to enter into space was

    (1) Valentina Tereshkova
    (2) Edward H. White
    (3) Yuri Gagarin
    (4) Alan Shepard
    Answer:
    28. (3) Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space and the first to orbit the earth, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth on 12 April, 1961. Vostok 1 marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup crew to the Soyuz 1 mission (which ended in a fatal crash). 

    29. To an astronaut sky appears

    (1) white 
    (2) rich blue
    (3) light blue 
    (4) dark
    Answer:
    29. (4) Sunlight doesn’t light up space because there is nothing there for it to light up. Light in space travels in straight lines, so we only see sunlight when we look at the sun. As for the rest of the universe, if we assume an infinite universe, we would expect it to be bright with the light of infinity of stars. This is called Olbers’ paradox. But the intensity of the light decreases with the square of the distance, and at some point the stars are too far away and receding too fast for their light to ever reach us. So the actual amount of starlight from very distant stars is negligible.

    30. An astronaut in outer space will observe sky as

    (1) white 
    (2) black
    (3) blue 
    (4) red
    Answer:
    30. (2) Space is black because there are no substances or objects to reflect back any colour (or all colours, which would make it white). That is also why the astronauts see the earth as we see it in photos, but the space around it is black. The light from the sun is reflected back as the blues and greens and browns that we see, but the space around the earth is just that - empty space and therefore does not reflect back any colours, so it is black.

    31. ISRO is abbreviation for

    (1) Indian Scientific Research Organisation
    (2) International Space Research Organisation
    (3) International Sales Research Organisation
    (4) Indian Space Research Organisation
    Answer:
    31. (4) The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the primary space agency of the Indian government. ISRO is amongst the six largest government space agencies in the world, along with NASA, RKA, ESA, CNSA and JAXA. Its primary objective is to advance space technology and use its applications for national benefit. Established in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR). Headquartered in Bangalore, ISRO is under the administrative control of the Department of Space, Government of India. ISRO has achieved numerous milestones since its establishment. India’s first satellite, Aryabhata, was built by ISRO and launched by the Soviet Union in 1975. Rohini, the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indianmade launch vehicle, SLV-3, was launched in 1980. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for putting satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites, earth observation satellites, and, in 2008, Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon.

    32. Of the following Indian satellites, which one is intended for long distance telecommunications for transmitting TV programmes ?

    (1) INSAT-A 
    (2) Aryabhata
    (3) Bhaskara 
    (4) Rohini
    Answer:
    32. (1) INSAT or the Indian National Satellite System is a series of multipurpose Geo-stationary satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, and search and rescue operations. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic communication system in the Asia Pacific Region. The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system was commissioned with the launch of INSAT- 1B in August 1983 (INSAT-1A, the first satellite was launched in April 1982 but could not fulfill the mission). INSAT system ushered in a revolution in India’s television and radio broadcasting, telecommunications and meteorological sectors. It enabled the rapid expansion of TV and modern telecommunication facilities to even the remote areas and off-shore islands.

    33. What is the name of the Light Combat Aircraft developed by India indigenously ?

    (1) BrahMos 
    (2) Chetak
    (3) Astra 
    (4) Tejas
    Answer:
    33. (4) The HAL Tejas is a lightweight multirole fighter developed by India. It is a tailless, compound deltawing design powered by a single engine. It came from the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme, which began in the 1980s to replace India’s aging MiG-21 fighters. Later, the LCA was officially named “Tejas”, meaning “Radiance” by then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The Tejas has a pure delta wing configuration, with no tailplanes or foreplanes, and a single dorsal fin. It integrates technologies such as relaxed static stability, fly-by-wire flight control system, advanced digital cockpit, multi-mode radar, integrated digital avionics system, advanced composite material structures and a flat rated engine.

    34. What is the range of Agni III, the long range ballistic missile, test-fired by India recently?

    (1) 2250 km 
    (2) 3500 km
    (3) 5000 km 
    (4) 1000 km
    Answer:
    34. (2) Agni-III is an intermediate-range ballistic missile developed by India as the successor to Agni-II. It has a range of 3,500 km- 5,000 km, and is capable of engaging targets deep inside neighboring countries. The missile’s Circular error probable (CEP) is within 40 meters range, which makes it the most sophisticated and accurate ballistic missile of its range class in the world. Agni III—an intermediate-range ballistic missile—was developed by India as the successor to Agni-II. Designed by the Indian government’s Defence Research and Development Organisation, Agni III is a two-stage ballistic missile that is capable of nuclear weapons delivery. It was designed and developed by the Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL), a unit of DRDO, which was formed in September 2001 with its main objective being the development of large-sized rocket motors.
    Note : Agni-VI is an intercontinental ballistic missile reported to be in early stages of development by India. It will be capable of being launched from submarines as well as from land, and will have a strike-range of 8,000–10,000 km with MIRVed warheads. Agni-V is a solid fueled intercontinental ballistic
    missile (ICBM) developed by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) of India. It will greatly expand India’s reach to strike targets more than 5,500 km away. Agni-IV is the fourth in the Agni series of missiles which was earlier known as Agni II prime. Its full range of 4000 km.

    35. The Department of Space proposed setting up of Indian Institute of Space Technology on the line of the seven IITs. It will have its independent campus at

    (1) Chennai
    (2) Thumba
    (3) Thiruvananthapuram
    (4) Sriharikota
    Answer:
    35. (3) The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology is India’s national institute for the study
    and development of space science, located at Valiamala, Nedumangad, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. It was inaugurated on 14 September 2007 by G. Madhavan Nair, the then Chairman ISRO. IIST is sponsored by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) under Department of Space, Government of India. IIST offers undergraduate B. Tech., master’s M. Tech and Ph.D. programs in space science and technology, and also serves as a research centre.

    36. Nuclear explosive devices were tested in India at

    (1) Sriharikota 
    (2) Bangalore
    (3) Pokharan 
    (4) Kanchipuram
    Answer:
    36. (3) Pokhran is a city and a municipality located in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is a remote location in the Thar Desert region and served as the test site for India’s first underground nuclear weapon detonation. It shot into the international limelight on 7 September 1974 when the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi verbally authorized scientists at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Trombay to detonate small and miniaturized nuclear device. Throughout its development, the device was formally called the “Peaceful Nuclear Explosive (PNE)” by Indian
    Government, but it was usually referred to as the Operation Smiling Buddha. On May 11 of 1998, 24
    years after the first operation, the Atomic Energy Commission of India and the Defence Research and
    Development Organisation (DRDO) carried out the joint operation, known as Pokhran-II. The AEC India detonated its four devices as part of the underground nuclear testing on Pokhran Test Range.

    37. The period of revolution of a geostationary satellite is

    (1) 24 hours 
    (2) 30 days
    (3) 365 days
    (4) changing continuously
    Answer:
    37. (1) A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the same
    as the Earth’s rotation period. Such a satellite returns to the same position in the sky after each sidereal
    day, and over the course of a day traces out a path in the sky that is typically some form of analemma.

    38. In which year was the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) founded?

    (1) 1967 
    (2) 1969
    (3) 1970 
    (4) 1974
    Answer:
    38. (2) The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the primary space agency of the Indian government. ISRO is amongst the six largest government space agencies in the world, along with NASA, RKA, ESA, CNSA and JAXA. Its primary objective is to advance space technology and use its applications for national benefit. Established in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR). Headquartered in Bangalore, ISRO is under the administrative control of the Department of Space, Government of India. ISRO has achieved numerous milestones since its establishment.

    39. The first ever robot spacecraft to probe planet Venus was named

    (1) Galileo 
    (2) Magellan
    (3) Newton 
    (4)Challenger
    Answer:
    39. (2) The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a 1,035-kilogram (2,280 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus using Synthetic Aperture Radar and measure the planetary gravity. It was the first interplanetary mission to be launched from the Space Shuttle, the first to use an inertial upper stage booster and was the first spacecraft to test aerobraking as a method for circularizing an orbit. Magellan was the fourth successful, NASA funded mission to Venus and ended an eleven year U.S. interplanetary exploration hiatus.

    40. Comets revolve around the

    (1) Earth
    (2) Venus
    (3) Sun 
    (4) Jupiter
    Answer:
    40. (3) A comet is a small, icy celestial body that orbits around the sun. It is made up of a nucleus (solid, frozen ice, gas and dust), a gaseous coma (water vapor, CO 2, and other gases) and a long tail (made of dust and ionized gases). The tail develops when the comet is near the Sun. The tail can be up to 250 million km long, and is most of what we see. Comets are only visible when they’re near the sun in their highly eccentric orbits.

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