Science & Technology Quiz-3

Science & Technology Quiz-3

Science & Technology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Quiz for State and UPSC Civil Services Examinations. Objective Questions on Science & Technology for competitive examinations.

    41. Who is known as ‘the father of Indian missile technology’ ?

    (1) Dr. U.R. Rao
    (2) Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
    (3) Dr. Chidambaram
    (4) Dr. Homi Bhabha
    Answer:
    41. (2) Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is the undisputed father of India’s missile program. He has breathed life into ballistic missiles like the Agni and Prithvi, which put China and Pakistan well under India’s missile range. It is too exhausting to track Dr Abdul Kalam’s achievements to date. In the ’60s and ’70s he was a trail blazer in the space department. In the ’80s he transformed the moribund Defence Research and
    Development Laboratory in Hyderabad into a highly motivated team. By the ’90s Kalam emerged as the czar of Indian science and technology and was awarded the Bharat Ratna.

    42. Which one of the following correctly describes AGNI ?

    (1) A fighter plane
    (2) A versatile tank
    (3) A long-range missile
    (4) A long-range gun
    Answer:
    42. (3) The Agni missile is a family of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by
    India, named after one of the five elements of nature. The first missile of the series, Agni-I was developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program and tested 1991. After its success, Agni missile program was separated from the IGMDP upon realizing its strategic importance. As of 2008, the Agni missile family comprises three deployed variants while two more variants are under testing.

    43. The Name of India’s research station at the North pole is

    (1) Dakshin Gangotri
    (2) Maitri
    (3) Himadri
    (4) None of these
    Answer:
    43. (3) Himadri Station is India’s first Arctic research station located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway. It is located at the International Arctic Research base, Ny-Ålesund. The station is operated by National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research. The station was inaugurated in 2008 by Kapil Sibal, Minister for Science & Technology.
    Note : Himadri Station is India’s first Arctic research station located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway. It is located at the International Arctic Research base, Ny-Ålesund. At Arctic, meteorological, biological, glaciological and past climate studies are undertaken in the vicinity of the station ‘Himadri’. Local boats are hired for marine research. India presently has two research stations at Antarcticanamely ‘Maitri’ and ‘Bharati’. New station ‘Bharati’ has just been constructed and established in March, 2013. At both the stations, research and investigations are undertaken to understand the Polar processes and phenomenon. Observations and studies are carried out in atmospheric, biological, geological, ecological sciences etc. Maitri station has been in operation since 1989. Dakshin Gangotri was the first scientific base station of India situated in Antarctica, part of the Indian Antarctic Program. It is currently being used as a supply base and transit camp.

    44. PSLV stands for

    (1) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
    (2) Polish Satellite Launch Vehicle
    (3) Perfect Satellite Launching Verifier
    (4) Preparatory Satellite Launching Vehicle
    Answer:
    44. (1) The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The PSLV has launched 55 satellites / spacecrafts (26 Indian and 29 Foreign Satellites) into a variety of orbits so far.
    Note : The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, commonly known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
    On Feb 15, 2017 PSLV-C37 Successfully Launches 104 Satellites in a Single Flight.

    45. The first astronaut to walk in outer space is

    (1) Aleksei Leonov
    (2) Yuri Gagarin
    (3) Neil Armstrong
    (4) Dave Scott
    Answer:
    45. (2) As the first man to escape Earth’s gravitation field and achieve orbit, Yuri Gagarin holds the title of first human being in space. On 12 April, 1961 in his craft Vostok 1, Gagarin completed a single orbit of the Earth. Performed at an altitude of 187 3/4 miles (302 kilometers), the orbital rotation took 108 minutes at 18,000 miles an hour. For this he was nominated a Hero of the Soviet Union.

    46. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is situated in

    (1) Delhi 
    (2) Mumbai
    (3) Chennai 
    (4) Hyderabad
    Answer:
    46. (2) The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is India’s premier nuclear research facility based in Trombay, Mumbai. BARC is a multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for
    advanced research and development covering the entire spectrum of nuclear science, engineering and
    related areas. BARC’s core mandate is to sustain peaceful applications of nuclear energy, primarily for
    power generation. It manages all facets of nuclear power generation, from theoretical design of reactors,
    computerized modeling and simulation, risk analysis, development and testing of new reactor fuel materials, etc. It also conducts research in spent fuel processing, and safe disposal of nuclear waste. Its other research focus areas are applications for isotopes in industries, medicine, agriculture, etc.

    47. With which among the following fields is the name of S. Chandrasekhar associated ?

    (1) Cosmology
    (2) Chemistry
    (3) Fluid Mechanics
    (4) Astrophysics
    Answer:
    47. (4) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was an IndianAmerican astrophysicist who, with William A. Fowler, won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for key discoveries that led to the currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars. The Chandrasekhar limit is named after him.
    Chandrasekhar was the nephew of Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930. Chandrasekhar in distinct periods worked in various areas including stellar structure, theory of white dwarfs, stellar dynamics, theory of radiative transfer, quantum theory of the negative ion of Hydrogen, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, equilibrium and the stability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, general relativity. mathematical theory of black holes and theory of colliding gravitational waves.

    48. The Messenger Satellite launched by NASA is to study

    (1) Mercury 
    (2) Venus
    (3) Saturn 
    (4) Jupiter
    Answer:
    48. (1) MESSENGER (an acronym of MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) is a robotic NASA spacecraft orbiting the planet Mercury, the first spacecraft ever to do so. The 485-kilogram spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket in August 2004 to study Mercury’s chemical composition, geology, and magnetic field. It became the second mission after 1975’s Mariner 10 to reach Mercury successfully when it made a flyby in January 2008, followed by a second flyby in October 2008, and a third flyby in September 2009.

    49. Which of the following countries launched world’s first satellite for monitoring Greenhouse Gases?

    (1) USA 
    (2) Russia
    (3) Japan 
    (4) China
    Answer:
    49. (3) The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite or GOSAT, also known as Ibuki (meaning breath in
    Japanese) is an Earth observation satellite and the world’s first satellite dedicated to greenhouse-gasmonitoring. It measures densities of carbon dioxide and methane from 56,000 locations on the Earth’s atmosphere. The GOSAT was developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and launched on January 23, 2009, from the Tanegashima Space Center. Japan’s Ministry of the Environment, and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) use the data to track gases causing the greenhouse effect, and share the data with NASA and other international scientific organizations.
    Note : On Dec. 22, 2016 China has successfully sent its first carbon dioxide monitoring satellite TanSat
    into space via a Long March-2D rocket. The spacecraft was launched from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch
    Center located in the Gobi Desert.

    50. The device in communication satellites which receives signals from an earth station and transmits them to different directions is

    (1) Transformer 
    (2) Transistor
    (3) Transponder 
    (4) Transducer
    Answer:
    50. (3) In telecommunication, a transponder is one of two types of devices. In air navigation or radio frequency identification, a transponder is a device that emits an identifying signal in response to an interrogating received signal. In a communications satellite, a transponder gathers signals over a range of uplink frequencies and re-transmits them on a different set of downlink frequencies to receivers on Earth, often without changing the content of the received signal or signals. The term is a portmanteau for Transmitter-responder.

    51. Kaiga-II plant which supplies electricity is a

    (1) hydel project
    (2) coal project
    (3) nuclear power reactor
    (4) None of the above
    Answer:
    51. (3) Kaiga generating station is a nuclear power generating station situated at Kaiga, near the river
    Kali, in Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka, India. The plant has been in operation since March 2000
    and is operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India. It has four units. The fourth unit went critical on 27 November 2010. The two oldest units comprise the west half of the site and the two newer units are adjoining the east side of the site. All of the four units are small-sized CANDU plants of 220 MW.

    52. Which country launched the world’s first satellite dedicated to monitoring Green house gas emission in 2009?

    (1) Japan 
    (2) Brazil
    (3) India 
    (4) U.S.A.
    Answer:
    52. (1) The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite or GOSAT, also known as Ibuki (menaing breath in
    Japanese) is an Earth observation satellite and the world’s first satellite dedicated to greenhouse-gasmonitoring. It measures densities of carbon dioxide and methane from 56,000 locations on the Earth’s atmosphere.

    53. Where is the satellite launching centre of India located ?

    (1) Ahmedabad 
    (2) Hassan
    (3) Sriharikota 
    (4) Thumba
    Answer:
    53. (3) Sriharikota is a barrier island off the coast of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It houses India’s only satellite launch centre in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (also known as SHAR) and is used by the Indian Space Research Organisation to launch satellites using multi-stage rockets such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle. Originally
    called Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR, an acronym ISRO have retained to the present day) and
    then Sriharikota Launching Range, the centre was renamed in 2002 after the death of ISRO’s former
    chairman Satish Dhawan.

    54. The Headquarters of MCF (Master Control Facility) – the nerve centre of the entire space craft operations-in India is at

    (1) Hyderabad– Andhra Pradesh
    (2) Thumba – Kerala
    (3) Sriharikota – Andhra Pradesh
    (4) Hassan – Karnataka
    Answer:
    54. (4) The Master Control Facility is a facility set up by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in the city of Hassan in the Indian state of Karnataka. Established in 1982, this facility is responsible for monitoring and controlling the satellites launched by ISRO. This was the only Master Control Facility of ISRO till another one was established in Bhopal in 2005. When ISRO wanted to a control facility, it inspected various sites that were offered to it within India. ISRO chose Hassan as the location (Location on Google Maps) because it was free of noise and encountered less terrestrial transmission than other proposed sites. Low interference was a must since the facility should be able to pick up even very weak signals from the satellite. Currently MCF controls the following 10 satellites: INSAT-2E, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3A, INSAT- 3E, INSAT-4A, INSAT-4B, INSAT-4CR KALPANA-1, GSAT-8 and GSAT-12. On these 10 satellites 8 are controlled from MCF Hassan and two are controlled
    form MCF Bhopal (INSAT-3C and INSAT-4CR.)

    55. Which city receives the highest cosmic radiation amongst the following ?

    (1) Chennai 
    (2) Mumbai
    (3) Kolkata 
    (4) Delhi
    Answer:
    55. (1) The total annual external dose from sources in soil and cosmic rays in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi and Bengaluru is 0.484, 0.81, 0.79, 0.70 and 0.825 milligray respectively. Gray is a unit for absorbed dose; when the radiation energy imparted to a kg of material is one joule, it is called a gray. Since gray is very large, milligray (one thousandth of a gray), and microgray (one millionth of a gray), are commonly used. Cosmic rays come from outer space. Their intensity at a place depends on the altitude. Cosmic rays alone contribute 0.28 milligray at the first three cities as they are at sea level; the column of air helps to reduce their intensity. At high altitudes, the protection from the column of air is less. The cosmic ray contributions are higher at 0.31 milligray and 0.44 milligray respectively at Delhi and Bengaluru as these cities are at altitudes of 216 metre and 921 metre. Air passengers receive 5 microgray per hour from cosmic rays. Parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are high background radiation
    areas (HBRA) because of the presence of large quantities of monazite in the soil. Thorium content in
    monazite ranges from 8-10.5 per cent. Researchers found that the radiation levels in 12 Panchayats in
    Karunagappally varied between 0.32 to 76 milligrays per year; the levels in 90 per cent of over 71,000
    houses were more than one milligray per year.

    56. A geostationary satellite revolves round the earth from

    (1) East to West
    (2) West to East
    (3) North to South
    (4) South to North
    Answer:
    56. (2) A geostationary satellite is an earth-orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude of approximately 35,800 kilometers (22,300 miles) directly over the equator, that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east). At this altitude, one orbit takes 24 hours, the same length of time as the earth requires to rotate once on its axis. The term geostationary comes from the fact that such a satellite appears nearly stationary in the sky as seen by a ground-based observer.

    57. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre is located at

    (1) Sriharikota 
    (2) Trivandrum
    (3) Trombay 
    (4) Bangalore
    Answer:
    57. (2) The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre is a major space research centre of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), focusing on rocket and space vehicles for India’s satellite programme. It is located in Thiruvananthapuram, in the Indian state of Kerala. The center had its beginnings as the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1962. It was renamed in honour of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space program. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Center is one of the main Research & Development establishments within ISRO. VSSC is an entirely indigenous facility working on the development of sounding rockets; Rohini and Menaka launchers; ASLV, PSLV GSLV and the GSLV Mk III.

    58. From where was INSAT-2E launched?

    (1) Baikanour 
    (2) Kourou
    (3) Sriharikota 
    (4) Chandipur
    Answer:
    58. (2) INSAT-2E was launched by Arianespace, using an Ariane 42P carrier rocket flying from ELA-2 at the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou on April 2, 1999. It is a weather satellite which is operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation.

    59. Which one of the following refers to the first nuclear reactor of India ?

    (1) Rohini 
    (2) Urvashi
    (3) Apsara 
    (4) Kamini
    Answer:
    59. (3) Apsara became the first nuclear reactor of India in 1956. It was named by the then Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru when he likened the blue Cerenkov radiation to the beauty of the Apsaras (Indra's court dancers). This first nuclear research reactor of India completed 50 years in August 2006.

    60. Which of the following is India’s development IRBM?

    (1) Prithvi 
    (2) Aakash
    (3) Agni II 
    (4) Dhanush
    Answer:
    60. (3) Agni II is an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile of India. It is a missile with two solid fuel stages and a Post Boost Vehicle (PBV) integrated into the missile's Re-entry Vehicle (RV). It is both road and rail mobile. In the Agni series of ballistic missiles, Agni II, Agni III and Agni IV are IRBMs.

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